Chapter 2

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243723
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Chapter 2
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2013-10-29 17:32:48
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ICD 10
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chapter 2
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  1. Homeostasis
    the normal dynamic process of balance needed to maintain a healthy body.
  2. metabolism
    the act of converting energy by continually building up substances by anabolism and breaking down substances by catabolism for use by the body
  3. cyt/o
    cell
  4. home/o
    same
  5. -stasis
    controlling
  6. meta-
    • change
    • beyond
  7. bol/o
    throwing
  8. -ism
    state of
  9. ana-
    • up
    • apart
  10. cata-
    down
  11. cellul/o
    cell
  12. -plasm
    formation
  13. lys/o
    dissolving
  14. -some
    body
  15. rib/o
    ribose
  16. mitochondri/o
    mitochondria
  17. -on
    structure
  18. nucle/o
    nucleus
  19. us
    structure
  20. cytoplasm
    holds the organelles of the cell
  21. lysosome
    organelle that serves a digestive function for the cell
  22. ribosome
    site of protein formation; contains RNA
  23. mitochondrion
    converts nutrients to energy in the presence of oxygen
  24. nucleus
    control center of cell; contains DNA, which carries genetic information
  25. 4 major categories of tissues
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • muscular
    • nervous
  26. stromal tissue
    supportive tissue
  27. parenchymal
    does the actual work of the organ
  28. epithelial tissue
    acts as an internal or external covering for organs (outer layer of skin, lining of digestive tract)
  29. connective tissue
    have an internal structural network (includes a variety of types)
  30. muscular tissue
    includes three types: heart muscle, skeletal muscle, and visceral muscle, all of which share the unique property of being able to contract and relax
  31. nervous tissue
    includes cells that provide transmission of information to regulate a variety of functions (neurons/nerve cells)
  32. autologous tissue
    taken from one part of an individuals body and is transplanted to another location.
  33. nonautologous tissue
    not from one's self, but from another human
  34. allogenic tissue
    being produced by a different human being
  35. zooplastic tissue
    derived from an animal
  36. syngeneic tissue
    genetically identical individuals
  37. organs / viscera
    arrangements of various types of tissue that accomplish specific purposes
  38. hist/o
    tissue
  39. strom/o
    stromal
  40. par-
    near
  41. en-
    in
  42. chym/o
    juice
  43. -al
    pertaining to
  44. epi-
    upon
  45. thel/e
    nipple
  46. -ial
    pertaining to
  47. my/o
    muscle
  48. neur/o
    nervous
  49. viscer/o
    organ
  50. cardi/o
    heart
  51. -um
    structure
  52. endo-
    within
  53. apic/o
    apex
  54. apex
    the pointed extremity of a conical structure
  55. corpor/o
    body
  56. som/o
    body
  57. somat/o
    body
  58. body
    the largest or most important part of an organ
  59. fornic/o
    fornix
  60. fornix
    any vaultlike or arched structure
  61. fund/o
    fundus
  62. fundus
    the base or deepest part of a hollow organ that is farthest from the mouth of the organ
  63. hil/o
    hilum
  64. lumin/o
    lumen
  65. lumen
    the space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube
  66. sin/o
    sinus/o
    sinus
  67. sinus
    a cavity or channel in bone, a dilated channel for blood, or a cavity that permits the escape of purulent (pus-filled) material
  68. vestibul/o
    vestibule
  69. vestibule
    a small space or cavity at the beginning of a canal
  70. musculoskeletal functions
    support, movement, protection
  71. integumentary functions
    cover and protection
  72. gastrointestinal functions
    nutrition
  73. urinary functions
    elimination of nitrogenous waste
  74. reproductive functions
    reproduction
  75. blood/lymphatic/immune functions
    • transportation of nutrients/waste
    • protection
  76. cardiovascular functions
    transportation of blood
  77. respiratory functions
    delivers oxygen to cells and removes carbon dioxide
  78. nervous/behavioral functions
    receive/process information
  79. special senses (eye and ear) functions
    information gathering
  80. endocrine functions
    effects changes through chemical messengers
  81. hem/o
    hemat/o
    blood
  82. oste/o
    bone
  83. osse/o
    bone
  84. lys/o
    • breakdown
    • dissolve
  85. cyt/o
    cell
  86. cellul/o
    cell
  87. epitheli/o
    epithelium
  88. adip/o
    fat
  89. myocardi/o
    heart muscle
  90. kary/o
    nucleus
  91. ana-
    • up
    • apart
    • away
  92. cata-
    down
  93. en-
    in
  94. meta-
    • beyond
    • change
  95. -plasm
    formation
  96. cytology
    the study of the cells
  97. histology
    the study of tissues
  98. anatomy
    to cut apart, the study of the structure of the body
  99. physiology
    the study of growth; the study of the function of the body
  100. physi/o
    growth
  101. pathology
    the study of disease
  102. biopsy
    process of viewing living tissue that has been removed for the purpose of diagnosis and/or treatment
  103. necropsy
    process of viewing dead tissue
  104. necr/o
    death/dead
  105. autopsy
    process of viewing by self
  106. auto
    self
  107. buccal
    pertaining to the cheek
  108. bucc/o
    cheek
  109. cephalic
    pertaining to the head
  110. cervical
    pertaining to the neck. Collum is a term that refers to the entire neck
  111. cranial
    pertaining to the skull
  112. crani/o
    skull
  113. cephal/o
    head
  114. facial
    pertaining to the face
  115. faci/o
    face
  116. frontal
    pertaining to the front, the forehead
  117. front/o
    front
  118. mental
    pertaining to the chin
  119. ment/o
    chin
  120. nasal
    pertaining to the nose
  121. nas/o
    nose
  122. ocular
    pertaining to the eye
  123. ocul/o
    eye
  124. oral
    pertaining to the mouth
  125. or/o
    mouth
  126. otic
    pertaining to the ear. also called auriclar
  127. ot/o
    ear
  128. abdominal
    pertaining to the abdomen
  129. abdomin/o
    abdomin
  130. axillary
    pertaining to the armpit
  131. axill/o
    axillary (armpit)
  132. coxal
    pertaining to the hip
  133. cox/o
    hip
  134. deltiod
    pertaining to the deltiod muscle covering the shouder. combining form om/o is often used for the shoulder
  135. delt/o
    triangular
  136. -oid
    resembling
  137. inguinal
    pertaining to the groin
  138. inguin/o
    groin
  139. mammary
    pertaining to the breast
  140. pelvic
    pertaining to the pelvis
  141. pubic
    pertaining to the pubis
  142. pub/o
    pubis
  143. sternal
    pertaining to the breastbone
  144. stern/o
    sternum (breastbone)
  145. throacic
    pertaining to the chest. Also called pectoral
  146. thorac/o
    chest
  147. umbilical
    pertaining to the umbilicus
  148. umbilic/o
    umbilicus (naval)
  149. antecubital
    pertaining to the front of the elbow
  150. cubit/o
    elbow
  151. brachial
    pertaining to the arm. antebrachial means pertaining to the forearm
  152. carpal
    pertaining to the wrist
  153. carp/o
    wrist
  154. crural
    pertaining to the leg
  155. crur/o
    leg
  156. digital
    pertaining to the finger/toe. phalangeal means pertaining to the bones in the fingers/toes
  157. digit/o
    • finger
    • toe
  158. femoral
    pertaining to the thigh
  159. femor/o
    thigh
  160. manual
    pertaining to the hand
  161. man/u
    hand
  162. palmar
    pertaining to the palm. also termed volar
  163. palm/o
    palm
  164. patellar
    pertaining to the kneecap
  165. patell/o
    patell/a
    kneecap
  166. pedal
    foot
  167. ped/o
    foot
  168. plantar
    pertaining to the side of the foot
  169. plant/o
    sole
  170. tarsal
    pertaining to the ankle
  171. tars/o
    ankle
  172. acromial
    pertaining to the acromion (highest point of the shoulder)
  173. acromi/o
    acromion
  174. dorsal
    pertaining to the back
  175. dors/o
    back
  176. gluteal
    pertaining to the buttocks
  177. glute/o
    buttocks
  178. lumbar
    pertaining to the lower back
  179. lumb/o
    • lower back
    • loin
  180. nuchal
    pertaining to the neck, especially the back of the neck
  181. nuch/o
    neck
  182. olecranal
    pertaining to the elbow
  183. olecran/o
    elbow
  184. perineal
    pertaining to the perineum. (the space between the external genitalia and the anus)
  185. perine/o
    perineum
  186. popliteal
    pertaining to the back of the knee
  187. poplite/o
    back of knee
  188. sacral
    pertaining to the sacrum
  189. sacr/o
    sacrum
  190. scapular
    pertaining to the scapula
  191. scapul/o
    scapula, shoulder blade
  192. sural
    pertaining to the calf
  193. sur/o
    calf
  194. vertebral
    pertaining to the spine
  195. vertebr/o
    • vertebra
    • spine
  196. anterior
    pertaining to the front
  197. anter/o
    front
  198. ventral
    pertaining to the belly side
  199. ventr/o
    belly
  200. posterior
    pertaining to the back
  201. poster/o
    back
  202. dorsal
    pertaining to the back of the body
  203. dors/o
    back
  204. superior
    pertaining to upward
  205. super/o
    upward
  206. cephalad
    toward the head
  207. cephal/o
    head
  208. inferior
    pertaining to downward
  209. infer/o
    downward
  210. caudad
    toward the tail
  211. caud/o
    tail
  212. medial
    pertaining to the middle (midline)
  213. medi/o
    middle
  214. lateral
    pertaining to the side
  215. later/o
    side
  216. ipsilateral
    pertaining to the same side
  217. ipsi-
    same
  218. contralateral
    pertaining to the opposite side
  219. contra-
    opposite
  220. unilateral
    pertaining to one side
  221. uni-
    one
  222. bilateral
    pertaining to two sides
  223. bi-
    two
  224. superficial (external)
    on the surface of the body
  225. deep (Internal)
    away from the surface of the body
  226. proximal
    pertaining to near the origin
  227. proxim/o
    near
  228. distal
    pertaining to far from the origin
  229. dist/o
    far
  230. dixtrad
    toward the right
  231. dextr/o
    right
  232. -ad
    toward
  233. sinistrad
    toward the left
  234. sinistr/o
    left
  235. afferent
    pertaining to carrying toward a structure
  236. af-
    toward
  237. fer/o
    to carry
  238. efferent
    peratining to carrying away from a structure
  239. ef-
    away from
  240. supine
    lying on one's back
  241. prone
    lying on one's belly
  242. dorsal cavity
    two of the five cavities in the back of the body
  243. vertral cavity
    three cavities in the front of the body
  244. cranial cavity
    contains the brain and is surrounded and protected by the cranium, or skull
  245. spinal cavity
    contains the spinal cord and is surrounded and protected by the bones of the spine, or vertebrae
  246. throracic cavity
    contains the heart, lungs, espophagus, and trachea and is protected by the ribs, the sternum (breastbone) and the vertebrae (backbones)
  247. pleural cavities
    contain the lungs
  248. mediastinum
    space between the lungs
  249. pericardial cavity
    holds the heart
  250. abdominopelvic cavity
    composed of two cavities (abdominal and pelvic) that are not seperated by any physical structure
  251. abdominal cavity
    contains the stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and intestines
  252. pelvic cavity
    contains bladder and reproductive organs
  253. peritoneum
    serous membrane that  lines entire abdominopelvic cavity
  254. diaphragmat/o
    diaphragm/o
    phren/o
    diaphragm
  255. abdominopelvic regions
    nine regions that lie over the abdominopelvic cavity.
  256. umbilical area
    area in the center of the abdominopelvic region
  257. lumbar regions
    to the left and right of umbilical area
  258. hypochondriac regions
    superior to lumbar regions, and below the ribs
  259. epigastric region
    medial to hypochondriac regions and superior to the umbilical region
  260. hypogastric region
    inferior to umbilical region
  261. iliac regions / inguinal regions
    lateral to the hypogastric region
  262. sagittal planes
    vertical planes that seperate the sides from each other
  263. midsagittal plane
    separates the body into equal right and left halves (median plane)
  264. frontal / coronal plane
    divides body into front and back portions
  265. transverse / cross-sectional plane
    divides the body horizontally into an upper part and lower part
  266. oblique plane
    divides body at a slanted angle

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