Sociology Exam 2

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  1. Structured social inequality, or, systematic inequalities between groups of people that
    arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships. 

    Social Classification of Differences
  2. A nearly universal system involving the subordination of femininity to masculinity.
  3. The natural or biological differences that distinguish males from females.
  4. Denotes a social position, the set of social arrangements, built around sex categories.
    How people make sense of sex differences
  5. What are the 3 Contemporary Conceptions
    of Sex and Gender?
    Biological Determinism, Nurture, Dialectical.
  6. A line of thought that explains social behavior in terms of biological givens.
    Biological Determinism
  7. Behavior, trans-sexuality
    Nurture (Pure Socialization)
  8. A two-directional relationship, one that goes both ways. Nature and Nurture are dialectical.
  9. Dominant and privileged, if invisible, category of men.
    Hegemonic masculinity
  10. Sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one’s status as a male or female.
    Gender roles
  11. A social space where young men are caught between adolescence and adulthood.
  12. What are the characteristics of the men who occupy Guyland?
    • -Males between 16-26
    • -Mostly whites
    • -Middle-class kids
    • -College-bound, in college or have recently graduated.
    • -Unmarried 
    • -Live with other guys in dorms, apartments or frats.
  13. What are the norms and practices of Guyland?
    • -Drinking, sex and video games.
    • -Watching sports, reading about sports, listening to sports in the radio.
  14. An intellectual, consciousness-raising movement to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life; the underlying belief is that women and men should be accorded equal opportunities and respect.
  15. When a person’s sex or gender is the basis for judgment, discrimination, and hatred against him or her.
  16. Refers to the unpaid housework that women typically do after they come
    home from their paid jobs.
    Second Shift
  17. Women want hookups to “evolve into some semblance of a relationship,” while Men prefer to “hook up with no strings attached.
    Battle of the Sexes view of Sexuality
  18. The social identity of a person who has sexual attraction to and/or relations with other persons of the same sex.
  19. Cultural ideas about appropriate sex based on
    heterosexual standards
  20. Degree of closeness that people are willing to tolerate in their interactions with stigmatized groups.
    Social Distance
  21. Formation of a new racial identity, in which new ideological boundaries of difference are
    drawn around a formerly unnoticed group of people
  22. The belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits. Racist thinking is characterized by three beliefs:

    Humans are divided into distinct bloodlines or physical traits.

    Linked to distinct cultures, behaviors, personalities and intellectual abilities

    Certain groups are superior to others.
  23. Dominant lens through which whites understand contemporary race relations; the belief
    that segregation and discrimination are no longer an issue because it is now
    illegal for individuals to be denied access to housing, or jobs because of their race; assumes equal opportunity; meritocracy.
  24. Everyone is equal in the eyes of God
    Ontological Equality
  25. Everyone has equal opportunity to succeed in life because the rules of the game are fair
    and apply to everyone.
    Equality of Opportunity
  26. Everyone should have an equal starting point and the rules of the game should be altered
    to enable this.
    Equality of Condition
  27. Everyone should end up with the same amount regardless of the fairness of the game.
    Equality of Outcome
  28. The assumption that other people will do the work and everyone at the end receives
    the same amount.
    Free-Rider Problem
  29. An individual or group’s movement between different positions in society (In different social classes or job statuses) 

    Usually based on comparison between generations

    The idea that people can make it from poverty to being rich.
    Social Mobility
  30. What are the prevailing myths about social mobility through sport?
    Sport provides free education

    Sport leads to a college degree

    A sports career is probable

    Sport is a way out of poverty 

    Women have sports as a vehicle

    Sports provides lifelong security.
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Sociology Exam 2
Sociology Exam 2 usd fall13
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