History Exam (Ch 7, 8 &9)

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  1. Immigration
    entry into a new nation for the purpose of permanent residence
  2. Ellis Island
    • 20,000,000 visitors (1892-1924)
    • closed in 1954
    • chief immigration station in American 
    • In New York
  3. Angel Island
    • 2nd largest immigration station
    • in San Francisco
  4. Adjusting was difficult for new immigrants because
    • culture shock
    • homesickness
    • loss of identity
    • language barrier
    • finding a place to live
  5. restrictive covenants
    agreement among homeowners not to sell to certain groups of people
  6. benevolent societies
    helped immigrants in cases of sickness, unemployment and death
  7. nativism
    Americans favoring native born Americans over immigrants
  8. Chinese Exclusion Act
    Congress denied citizenship to people born in China and prohibited Chinese Immigration for 10 years from 1882-1892 then added another 10 year after
  9. Gentlemen's Agreement
    1906 Japan agreed to stop issuing passports to their laborers
  10. Melting Pot
    Mixing of Societies
  11. Immigration Restriction League
    impose a literacy test on all immigrants
  12. Urbanization
    movement of people from the country to the city
  13. Skycrapers
    large multistory building
  14. Elisha Otis
    developed the mechanized elevator
  15. Boston, Massachutes
    first U.S. City to have a subway
  16. New York City, NY
    first U.S. City to have an elevated railway
  17. San Francisco, California
    First U.S. City to have a cable car
  18. Mass Transit
    all forms of mass transportation
  19. Suburbs
    residential neighborhoods on the out skirts of a city
  20. Tenements
    poorly built apartments designed to house as many people as possible
  21. Jane Addams
    • opened the first settlement house in Chicago called the Hull house in 1889
    • taught basic social skills and orphans lived in the house
  22. Social Gospel
    called for people apply Christian principles of social problems
  23. Five problems face cities in the New Industrial Ager
    • Housing
    • Transportation
    • Water and Sanitation
    • Fires
    • Law and Order
  24. Political Machines
    unofficial city organizations designed to keep a particular group or party in power
  25. Graft
    the acquisition of money or power through illegal and dishonest methods
  26. Kickback
    illegal payments for services or jobs
  27. Tweed Ring
    Crooked people led by "Boss" Tweed in New York City in Tammany hall, also a political machine
  28. Thomas Nast
    published more than 50 cartoons in Harper'S Weekly that sharply criticized Tweed and Tammany Hall
  29. Gilded Age
    term coined by Mark Twain suggesting that a thin but glittering later of prosperity covered the poverty and corruption of much of society
  30. Patronage
    the practice of giving jobs to those who help a candidate get elected
  31. Merit System
    the job goes to the most qualified person
  32. Election of 1876
    Winner- Rutherford B. Hayes - Republican
  33. Election of 1880
    winner - James A. Garfield - Republican
  34. Charles Guiteau
    shot James Garfield
  35. Chester Arthur
    became President upon the assassination of James Garfield
  36. Pendleton Civil Service Act 1883
    established the civil service commission to administer competitive examination to those seeking government jobs
  37. Election of 1884 and 1892
    Winner - Grover Cleveland - democratic
  38. Election of 1888
    winner - Benjamin Harrison - republican
  39. Louis Sullivan
    designed the ten-story wainwright building in St. Louis
  40. Fredrick Olmsted
    spearheaded the movement for planned urban parks and designed Central park
  41. George Eastman
    introduced the Kodak camera
  42. Booker T. Washington
    • founded the Tuskegee Institute in 1881
    • believed education was the key to economic indepenence
  43. George Washington Carver
    best known instructor at Tuskegee
  44. W.E.B. Du Bois
    • helped organize the NAACP in 1909
    • fought for equality
    • founder for the Niagara movement
  45. Poll Tax
    Fixed taxes imposed on every voter
  46. grandfather clause
    stated that if your grandfather voted before reconstruction then you could vote now
  47. segregation
    separation of the race
  48. Jim Crow Laws
    created to enforce segregation
  49. Plessy v. Ferguson
    • 1896 
    • Supreme Court stated that the separate but equal concept was constitutional
  50. First Professional Baseball team
    Cincinnati red stockings
  51. Debt Peonage
    a system that bound laborers into slavery in order to work off a debt to an employer
  52. American Leisure Time was spent...
    • Spectator Sports
    • Bicycling
    • Amusement parks
  53. Newspaper began using...
    sensational story headlines
  54. Joseph Pulitzer
    bought the New York World and introduced a large Sunday Edition, comics, sports, and women's news
  55. William Randolph Hearst
    • owned the New York Morning Journal
    • tried to outdo Pulitzer by filling it with exaggerated tales of personal scandals, cruelty, hypnotism, and even an imaginary trip to Mars
  56. Marshall Fields
    led the way in the creation of department stores
  57. Frank Woolworth
    led the way in the creation of chain stores
  58. Rural free delivery (RFD)
    • Sears and Roeback were the first
    • Deliver anywhere to your house
  59. Progressivism
    reform movement of the early 1900's concerned with problems of urbanization and industrialization
  60. Muckrakers
    Journalist who uncovered the wrong doings on the parts of politicians or corporations
  61. Robert M. La Follette
    from Wisconsin he led the way in regulating big business
  62. Initiative
    gives voters the power to introduce legislature
  63. Referendum
    citizens force legislature to place a recently passed law
  64. Recall
    could remove a representative
  65. 17th amendment
    gave voters the power to elect their senators
  66. Election of 1896
    Winner - William McKinley - republican
  67. Triangel Shirtwaist Fire
    • deadliest industrial fire 
    • lead to occupational safety measures
  68. Reasons women were denied the right to vote
    • Thought it would increase the divorce rate
    • liquor and factory industry didn't want them to vote
    • Not a women's place
    • Didn't want to open the black voting rights
  69. 19th amendment
    gave women the right to vote
  70. Election of 1900
    Theodore Roosevelt republican winner
  71. Square deal
    Roosevlet's program for fair and treatment for everyone
  72. Six Major achievements of the square deal
    • Increase in federal power
    • mediate a coal strike
    • regulating trust
    • regulating transportation
    • protecting our health
    • protecting our environment
  73. Upton Sinclair
    • In 1906 
    • Wrote a book called the Jungle Exposing the meatpacking Industry
  74. Meat Inspection Act
    was passed in 1906 requiring the federal government to inspect meat shipped across state lines
  75. Pure Food and Drug Act
    forbade the manufacturing, transportation, or selling of food and medical products containing harmful ingredients
  76. conservation
    preserve the environment and resources
  77. Gifford Pinchot
    was the named head of the Forestry Service in 1905
  78. Election of 1908
    William Howard Taft republican winner
  79. Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
    when Secretary of Interior Richard Ballinger fired Gifford Pinchot as Head of the Forestry Commission for criticizing the sale of land in Alaska
  80. Election of 1912
    Woodrow Wilson Democratic winner
  81. Clayton Antitrust Act
    • 1914
    • it clarified and extended the 1890 Sherman Antitrust by clearly defining what a corporation could not do
  82. Federal trade commision
    a federal trade agency established in 1914 to investigate and stop unfair business practices
  83. 16th amendment
    created income tax
  84. Federal reserve system
    a national banking system that controls the U.S. money supply and the availability of credit in the country
  85. 4 basic beliefs of progressives
    • The government should...
    • be more accountable to its citizens
    • control the power and influence of the rich
    • be involved in improvising the lives of citizens
    • become more efficient and less corrupt
Card Set:
History Exam (Ch 7, 8 &9)
2013-10-30 00:26:10
Coach Kelly History Chapter Exam

Exam on chapter 7, 8, & 9
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