A&P 1 Exam 2

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  1. What are glands of the skin
    Specialized exocrine glands found in dermis
  2. Types of glands
    Sebaceous, Sudiferous, Cermunious, Mammary
  3. Sweat Glands 2 types
    • Merocrine glands
    • Apocrince glands
  4. Aprocrine
    Almost always empty onto a hair follicle

    Have a lipid component which increase bacteria to the area and that produces the smell. (Bromhidrosis)
  5. Eccrine
    Almost never empty onto a hair follicle
  6. Sebaceous Glands
    Oily Secretions called Sebum

    flask shaped gland with duct that opens into hair follice.
  7. Ceruminous Glands
    Only found in ear conal

    • produce ear wax
    •       waterproofs the eardrum
    •        Bitterness repels mites and other pest
  8. Mammary Glands
    modified apocrine seat gland
  9. Nails
    tighly packed keratinzed cells

    Lunula appears white due to thickened stratum basale in that area

    Cuticle is stratum corneum
  10. Nail Growth
    Nail root/matrix only part that is actively alive

    occurs faster on dominate hand

    occurs more during summer/fall
  11. Thin Skin
    covers most of the body

    thin epidermis that lacks stratum lucidum

    lacks epidermal ridges

    has fewer sweat glands and sensory receptors
  12. Thick Skin
    only on palms and soles

    lacks hair follicles and sebaceous glands
  13. Functions of the skin (5)
    • barrier
    • Vit D. synthesis
    • Sensory function
    • thermoregulation
    • psychological/social function
  14. Skin Function Thermoregulation
    Releasing of sweat onto the skin

    adjusting blood flow to/from the body surface

    Shivering and constriction of surface vessels
  15. Skin function- protection/barrier
    • Physical
    •     tight cell junctions

    • Chemical
    •     sweat slightly acidic in nature (microbial-factor)

    • Biological
    •        UV protection
  16. Skin Function --Excretion and Absorption
    only minor role of the skin

    400mL of water ecaporates from the skin daily

    Lipid soluble substances can be absorbed
  17. Skin Function --Vit D synthesis
    need the skin to produce calsatrione

    sunlight activates the precursor to vit D
  18. Epidermal wound healing (Small abrasion or minor burn
    • 1) Basal cells migrate across the wound
    • 2) contact inhibition with other cells stops migration
    • 3) epidermal growth factor stimulates cell division
  19. Deep Wound Healing (if injusry reaches the dermis)
    1) imflam phase has clot unite wound edges and WBC arrive from dialtes and more permeable blood vessels

    2) migratory phase begins the regroth of epithelial cells and the formation of scare tissue by the fobroblasts

    3) proliferative phase is a completion of tissue formation

    4) maturation pahse sees the scab fall off
  20. Skin Cancer (basal cell carcinoma)
    rarely metastasize

    arises from stratum basale and invades dermis

    treated by surgical removal and radiation
  21. Skin cancer (Squamous Cell carcinoma)
    may metastasize

    arises from keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum
  22. Skin Cancer (Maligant melanoma)
    metastaize rapidly

    mostly deadly cancer

    arises form melanocytes of a pre-existing mole

    ABCDE (asymmetry, border irregular, color, diameter(over 6mm) elevation)
  23. Burns---1st degree
    only the epidermis
  24. Burns--2nd degree
    epidermis and part of dermis (blistered)
  25. burns--#rd Degree
    epidermis, dermis and more is destroyed
  26. Skin Grafts -- Autograft
    tissue from a different region of the patient
  27. Skin Grafts --- isograft
    skin graft from idential twin
  28. Skin Grafts-- Homograft
    graft from unrelated person (temporary)
  29. skin grafts--heterograft/xenograft
    tissue from another species
  30. Functions of bones (6)
    • 1) supporting and protecting soft tissue
    • 2) attachment site for muscles making movement possible
    • 3) storage of minerals, calcium, and phosphate
    • 4) blood cell production in red bone marrow (hemopoiesis)
    • 5)Energy storage in yellow bone marrow
  31. shapes of bones
    • 1) long
    • 2) flat
    • 3) irregular
    • 4) short
  32. Structure of Flat bone
    2 layers of compact bone seperated by spongy bone

    middle layer is spongy bones with no marrow cavity
  33. Structure of long bone --Shaft
  34. Structure of Long Bone- ends
  35. Structure of long bone-- growth plate region
  36. Structure of long bone--marrow cavity
    Medullary Cavity
  37. Structure of long bone-lining of marrow cavity
  38. Structure of long bone---tough membrane convering bone but not the cartilage
  39. osteogenic cells
    reside in endosteum, periosteum or central conals

    arise from embryonic fibroblasts

    only new source of steoblasts
  40. Osteoblasts
    form and help mineralize organic matter of matrix
  41. Osteocytes
    are osteoblasts that have become trapped in the matrix

    signal osteoclasts and osteoblasts about mechanical stresses.
  42. Osteoclasts
    break down bone

    reside in pits called resorption bays
  43. Matrix of osseous tissue (Organic matter)
    collagen, glycosaminogycans, proteoglycans and glycoproteins
  44. Matrix of Osseous Tissue (Inorganic Matter)
    • 85% hydroxyapatite
    • 10% calcium carbonate
  45. Osteon
    Basic structural unit
  46. Perforating canals or Volkmann Canals
    vascular canals perpendiculary joing centeral canals
  47. Red Bone Marrow
    Hemopoietic-produces blood cells

    Found in vertebrae, ribs, sternum, pelvic girdle and proximal heads of femur and humerous in adults.
  48. Yellow Bone Marrow
    fatty marrow of long bones in adults

    shock absorber
  49.  Bone Formation
    bones arise out of connective tissue

    Most bones are derived from intramembranous
  50. Intramembranous Bone Formation                                                                    
    1) mesenchymal cells become osteoprogenitor cells then osteoblasts

    2) Osteoblasts surround themsleves with matrix to become osteocytes

    3) matrix calcifies into trabeculae with spaces holding red bone marrow

    4) mesenchyme condenses as periosteum at the bone surface

    5) superficial layers or spongy bone are replaced with compact bone
  51. Zones of Growth in Epiphyseal plate-zone of resting cartilage
    anchors growth plate to bone
  52. Zones of Growth in Epiphyseal plate-Zone of Proliferating cartilage
    rapid cell division (stacked coins)
  53. Zones of Growth in Epiphyseal plate-Zone of hypertrophic cartilage
    cells enlarged and remain in columns
  54. Zones of Growth in Epiphyseal plate-Zone of calcified cartilage
    thin zone, cells mostly dead since matrix calcified
  55. Achondroplastic Dwarfism
    short stature but normal sized head and trunk

    results of spontaneous mutation when DNA is replicated

    only effects long bones
Card Set
A&P 1 Exam 2
A&P 1 exam 2 Degraw
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