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Eastern v. Western on landscape
- Western: Clear, main objects
- Eastern: Bird's eye, everything flat
Eastern v. Western on portraits
- Eastern: 4% face-to-frame, attention to details
- Western: 15%, Highlight the person
Eastern v. Western attention
- Western: Object-oriented, context-independent. Things defined by attributes.
- Eastern: Context-deendent, context-sensitive. Various factors in events.
Use of formal logic, context-independent, predicting behavior based on rules.
Context-inclusive, relationship-oriented, OVERALL
Low-context v. high-context communication
- Low: Explicit, direct message.
- High: Indirect, building relationships
Eastern v. Western arguments
- Western: Main argument, point-first
- Eastern: Context, point-last
Fundamental attributional bias for Western v. Eastern
Over-value personality-based explanations, under-valuing situational explanations
- Western: More error
- Eastern: Less error
- physiological: senses
- sociological: demographic, culture, group membership
- psychological: attitude, belief
Stages of human information processing
- 1. input/sensation
- 2. storage/memory
- 3. recall/retrieval
Group by shared features v. group by relationship
- Shared features: Americans (Taxonomic)
- Relationship: East asians (Thematic categorization)
W PITY PRIDE
A (paternalistic stereotype) (in-group)
M CONTEMPT ENVY
T (out-group) (resentment)
Stereotype content model
Ethnocentric attributional bias
- Ingroup: Positive acts to internal, negative to external
- Outgroup: Positive acts to external, negative acts to internal
Two reasons for using reference groups
comparative: making judgements and evaluations
normative: establish norms and standard to which group members conform
World's most masculine culture
What kind of gender groups does Saudi Arabia have?
Patriarchal social and political system.
World's most feminine culture?
The way people think is dictated by their language
smallest unit of sound
smallest meaningful units of speech (play-player-played...etc.)
contextual information, not part of the content of language but is critical to interpreting the meaning.
speakers of any language can create an infinite number of sentences from a finite set of sounds and rules
Direct v. indirect cross-cultural communication style
- direct: assertive "for sure"
- indirect: ambiguous, face-saving
Flash and embellished: middle eastern, blacks
say no more or less than is needed. european americans
concise statement and silence
sender based and goal outcome based
receiver based and process oriented
Kinesics (definition and types)
body movement(gestures, facial expression, eye gaze, stance)
- emblems, illustrators, affect displays, regulators, adaptors
people in different cultures use different emblems but usually share a meaning
typically hand and arm movements used with speech. meta-communicative function (messages about messages)
considered universal, highest sending capacity, facial expressions of emotion
behaviors that govern conversation.
head nodding, eye contact, holding hands
satisfy need. eg: scratching head when itches
Nonverbal expectancy violations theory
people hold expectancies about appropriate nonverbal behaviors. learned and culturally driven.