Culture and Communication Exam 2 Study Guide

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  1. Eastern v. Western on landscape
    • Western: Clear, main objects
    • Eastern: Bird's eye, everything flat
  2. Eastern v. Western on portraits
    • Eastern: 4% face-to-frame, attention to details
    • Western: 15%, Highlight the person
  3. Eastern v. Western attention
    • Western: Object-oriented, context-independent. Things defined by attributes.
    • Eastern: Context-deendent, context-sensitive. Various factors in events.
  4. Analytic thinking
    Use of formal logic, context-independent, predicting behavior based on rules.
  5. Holistic thinking
    Context-inclusive, relationship-oriented, OVERALL
  6. Low-context v. high-context communication
    • Low: Explicit, direct message.
    • High: Indirect, building relationships
  7. Eastern v. Western arguments
    • Western: Main argument, point-first
    • Eastern: Context, point-last
  8. Fundamental attributional bias for Western v. Eastern
    Over-value personality-based explanations, under-valuing situational explanations

    • Western: More error
    • Eastern: Less error
  9. Perceptual filters
    • physiological: senses
    • sociological: demographic, culture, group membership
    • psychological: attitude, belief
  10. Stages of human information processing
    • 1. input/sensation
    • 2. storage/memory
    • 3. recall/retrieval
  11. Group by shared features v. group by relationship
    • Shared features: Americans (Taxonomic)
    • Relationship: East asians (Thematic categorization)
  12. W   PITY                             PRIDE
    A    (paternalistic stereotype) (in-group)
    M    CONTEMPT                   ENVY
    T   (out-group)                    (resentment)

    Stereotype content model
  13. Ethnocentric attributional bias
    • Ingroup: Positive acts to internal, negative to external
    • Outgroup: Positive acts to external, negative acts to internal
  14. Two reasons for using reference groups
    comparative: making judgements and evaluations

    normative: establish norms and standard to which group members conform
  15. World's most masculine culture
  16. What kind of gender groups does Saudi Arabia have?
    Patriarchal social and political system.
  17. World's most feminine culture?
  18. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
    The way people think is dictated by their language
  19. Phonems
    smallest unit of sound
  20. morphemes
    smallest meaningful units of speech (play-player-played...etc.)
  21. Extralinguistic information
    contextual information, not part of the content of language but is critical to interpreting the meaning.
  22. Generative grammar
    speakers of any language can create an infinite number of sentences from a finite set of sounds and rules
  23. Direct v. indirect cross-cultural communication style
    • direct: assertive "for sure"
    • indirect: ambiguous, face-saving
  24. Elaborate style
    Flash and embellished: middle eastern, blacks
  25. Exacting style
    say no more or less than is needed. european americans
  26. succint style
    concise statement and silence
  27. instrumental style
    sender based and goal outcome based
  28. affective style
    receiver based and process oriented
  29. vocal qualities
  30. use of time
  31. use of space
  32. touch
  33. smell
  34. Kinesics (definition and types)
    body movement(gestures, facial expression, eye gaze, stance)

    • \
    • emblems, illustrators, affect displays, regulators, adaptors
  35. Emblems
    people in different cultures use different emblems but usually share a meaning
  36. illustrators
    typically hand and arm movements used with speech. meta-communicative function (messages about messages)
  37. Affect displays
    considered universal, highest sending capacity, facial expressions of emotion
  38. regulators
    behaviors that govern conversation.

    head nodding, eye contact, holding hands
  39. adaptors
    satisfy need. eg: scratching head when itches
  40. haptics
    use of touch
  41. Nonverbal expectancy violations theory
    people hold expectancies about appropriate nonverbal behaviors. learned and culturally driven.
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Culture and Communication Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide UPDATED
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