the process whereby old and new media are available via the integration of personal computers and high-speed digital distribution.
a method for systematically studying and coding media texts and programs.
research that isolates some aspect of content, suggest a hypothesis, and manipulates variable to discover a particular text's or medium's impact on attitudes, emotions, or behavior.
a poll to find opinions
a common research method in psychographic analysis in which a moderator leads a small group discussion about stuff usually 6-12 people
People who are not white and wrote a newspaper about non white things.
an early dominant style of American journalism distinguished by opinion newspapers, which generally argued one political point of view or pushed the plan of the particular party that subsidized the paper.
newspapers that, because of technological innovations in printing were able to drop their price to one cent beginning in the 1830's
media determines the major topics of discussion for individuals and society.
Spiral of Silence
a theory that links the mass media, social psychology, and the formation of public opinion; it proposes that people who find their views on controversial issues in the minority tend to keep silent.
the space left over in a newspaper for news content after all the ads are placed.
Third Person Effect
a theory suggesting that people believe others are more affected by media messages than they are themselves.
a newspaper style or era that peaked in the 1890's; it emphasized high-interest stories, sensational crime news, large headlines, and serious reports that exposed corruption, particularly in business and government.
Limited Effects Model
argues that mass media has little effect on its audience, reinforcing behaviors rather than changing them
Hypodermic Needle Effect
an early model in mass communication research that attempted to explain media effects by arguing that the media shoot their powerful effects directly into unsuspecting or weak audiences; sometimes called the magic bullet theory.
tentative general statements that predict a relationship between a dependent variable and an independent variable.
Uses and Gratifications
a mass communication research model, usually employing in-depth interviews and survey questionnaires, that argues that people use the media to satisfy various emotional desires or intellectual needs.
in media research, the idea that heavy television viewing leads individuals to perceive reality in ways that are consistent with the portrayals they see on TV.
the promotion and sale of a product throughout the various subsidiaries of a media conglomerate.
in media law, the defamation of character in written or broadcast expression.
Section 315 of the Communications Act
During election times station must provide an equal amount of opportunities and response time for qualified political candidates.
in law, spoken language that defames a person's character.
laws protecting the identity of key persons in reports.
the legal def. of censorship in the US, which prohibits courts and governments from blocking any publication or speech before it actually happens
The process of which media is shown to the public
a modern style of journalism that distinguishes factual reports from opinion columns; people strive to stay neutral
a type of journalism that involves analyzing and explaining key issues or events and placing them in a broader historical or social context.
the adaptation of fiction techniques, such as detailed setting descriptions or extensive dialogue, to nonfiction material and in-depth reporting.
PR and a democratic society
PR- the total communication strategies used to reach and persuade its audiences to adopt a point of view.
6 Conventional persuasive strategies
2. Commitment and Consistency
3. Social Proof
where there are many producers and sellers but only a few differentiable products in a catagory
a few firms control everything
Where one company runs and controls everything
Senders transmit messages through a mass media channel to large groups of receivers. In the process, gatekeepers filter those messages by making decisions about which messages get produced for which audiences.
(the straight forward perfect world model)
Social Scientific Vs. Cultural Model
Culture- in media research how people react to media
Social- the attempt to understand, explain, and predict the effects of media and its impact of mass media on society
a grassroots movement wherein activist amateurs and concerned citizens, not professional journalists, use Internet tools like blogs to disseminate news and info.
the advertising practice of strategically placing products in movies and other media so the products appear as part of a story's set environments.
in public relations, announcements- written in the style of a news report- that give new information about an individual, a company, or an organization and pitch a story idea to the news media.
Video News Releases
in public relations, the visual counterpart to a press release; it pitches a story idea to the TV news media by mimicking the style of a broadcast news report.
Public Service Announcements
reports or announcements, carried free by radio and TV stations, that promote government programs, educational projects, voluntary agencies, or social reform.
commercial outlets or bookers, such as United Features and King Features, that contract with newspapers to provide work from well-known political writers, editorial cartoonists, comic-strip artists, and self-help columnists.
digital messages and images. Ex. TV, a magazine article, telephone voice, etc.
Values and Lifestyles (VALS)
a market-research strategy that divides consumers into types and measures psychological factors, including how consumers think and feel about products and how they achieve the lifestyles to which they aspire.
a digital book read on a computer or electronic reading device.
in government public relations, the process of attempting to influence the voting of lawmakers to support a client's or an organization's best interest.
the end of the copyright period for a cultural or scientific work, at which point the public may begin to access it for free.