Biol 160 Exam 2 (Fill In Blanks)

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  1. Three prokaryotic CO2 fixation mechanisms are (           )   cycle, the (           ) pathway, and   (          ) pathway.
    Calvin, Acetyl CoA,   Reductive Tricarboxylic Acid
  2. 70% of the atmospheric methane on earth is produced by (        ).
  3. Many aerobic bacteria can grow on C1 compounds other than CO2. These bacteria are called (     )
  4. In CO2-fixing bacteria using the acetyl-CoA pathway, this enzyme is crucial because it is capable of reducing CO2 to the level of carbon monoxide and catalyzing its condensation with bound methyl and CoA to form acetyl-CoA.    This enzyme is (       three   words        ).
    Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase
  5. In methanogens, methyl coenzyme M reductase catalyzes the final step for CH4 generation. For this reaction, the enzyme requires coenzyme F430, which is a (     )-tetrapyrrole.
  6. There are three characterized CO2 fixation pathways used for autotrophic growth. The Calvin   cycle is the only one in the (        ) biosphere.
  7. Swimming bacteria are capable of (      )   responses.
  8. The advantage of a multienzyme complex in the cytosol is that if facilitates the   (       ) of metabolites, thus increasing the efficiency of catalysis.
  9. The most commonly used measurements of growth are (       ), (       ) cell counts, (         ) cell counts, and (          ) weight measurement.
    Turbidity, Total, Viable, Dry
  10. In the chemostat the concentration of the limiting nutrient in the reservoir is kept very (       ) so that growth is limited by the   availability of the nutrient.
  11. Growth in  batch bacterial culture can progress through a (            ) and (            ) to (         ) phase.
    Lag, Stationary, Log
  12. Preferential   growth on one carbon source before growth on a second carbon source is called   (               ) growth.
  13. Several of   the cell division genes are called fts genes,and fts stands for (   three words   ) phenotype.
    Filamentation Temperature Sensitive
  14. A single   cell will become (     )   cells after 10 generations.
  15. A single cell that has 30-min doubling time will become (       ) cells after 2 hrs.
  16. The site   of septum formation for bacterial cell division is determined by two separate   systems, called (    two words      ) and (          )
    Nucleoid Occlusion,   Min
  17. The DNA in a typical   bacterium exists as a covalently closed circle of a right-handed double helix   that may be (                ) to   (               ) times longer than the cell.
    500 to 600
  18. DNA replication takes   place in a DNA-synthesizing “factory” called a (         ), which consists of   an assemblage of enzymes and proteins that will soon be described.
  19. At the replication   fork the DNA templates are (       ); that is, one strand is 5’ to 3’ and the other strand is 3’ to 5’.
  20. During DNA replication, you will find several copies of short DNA fragments in the   lagging strand, but you don’t see such stuff in the leading strand. What is this called?
    Okazaki Fragments
  21. In E. coli the two   replication forks that begin at (     a      ) and polymerize   bidirectionally stop in a region of the chromosome opposite (         a      ), called (               ), the termination region
    Ori C / Ori C / Ter
  22. Mutations in the dnaQ (mutD) gene, which codes for a (                  ) subunit in the   DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, result in greatly increased rates of   spontaneous mutations.
    3' Exonuclease
  23. Transcription is to make RNA from DNA. There are three stages in transcription. What are   those?
    Initiation,  Elongation, Termination
  24. Transcription   initiation takes place at the (     a      ) site. Within the (        a        ) region,   there are two critical sties for transcription to occur: -10 and -35 regions.
  25. Factor-independent   termination of RNA polymerase action (transcription) occurs just after the   RNA polymerase transcribes a self-(           ) sequence of   bases.
  26. A sigma factor is responsible for recognition of certain promoter(s). Sometimes   bacteria need to regulate the activities of sigma factors. One way that   bacteria control the activities of its sigma factors is by using (       two   words          ) that bind to them   and inhibit their activity.
    Anti-Sigma Factor
  27. An operon   consists of two or more genes that are co-transcribed into a (         ) mRNA from a   single promoter at the beginning of the first gene.
  28. All the   operons regulated by a single transcriptional factor are collectively called   a (      )
  29. Transcriptional activators bind to specific sites in the DNA (          ) of the RNA   polymerase and make contact with the RNA polymerase while enhancing its   activity. Repressors bind (         ) of the RNA   polymerase (in the operator region) and block progression of the RNA   polymerase.
    Upstream, Downstream
  30. In the process of   protein synthesis, (       ) are   responsible for placing the correct amino acids into the polypeptide   sequence. For this reason, (      ) are called adaptor molecules.
  31. (         ) refers to the   phenomenon in ploycistronic mRNAs in which a block in the translation of an   upstream gene can prevent transcription of a downstream gene.
  32. In bacteria, several   genes can be transcribed into a single mRNA. How do you call a cluster of   such co-transcribed genes?
  33. Messenger RNAs are   translated by several ribosomes (typically around 50) in series and the   complex ribosomes attached to an mRNA is a (         ).
  34. EF-G is responsible for chain translocation during peptide synthesis. What is the energy source   for this process?
    GTP Hydrolysis
  35. Proteoliposomes are   artificial membrane vesicles of (       ) and (          ) that are of   enormous value in studying membrane proteins involving solute transport and   electron transport.
    Protein, Phospholipid
  36. When one keeps the internal concentration of a solute higher than the external   concentration by several orders of magnitude, one requires energy. The source   of energy can be either (       ), (          ),   or (       ).
    Chemical, Light,   Electrochemical
  37. When we   talk about ABC transporters, ABC stands for (    three words      ).
    ATP Binding Cassette
  38. There are   two transport systems for K+ in bacteria: TrK system and Kdp system. They differ in their   (         ) for K+.
  39. When glucose is transported from outside to inside of E. coli, it is phosphorylated. So, the transported product inside the   bacteria is (         ), not glucose. This type of transport is called (         two words          ).
    Glucose-6-Phosphate,   Group Translocation
  40. (    ) are an important way by which bacteria become resistant to antimicrobial agents, such as   antibiotics, dyes, detergents, disinfectants, and antiseptics.
    Drug Export Systems
  41. An example   of an (       ) resistance   system in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the TAP system.
  42. List five ways that bacteria do for solute transport.
    Symport, Uniport,   Antiport, ATP Dependent, Phosphotransferase
  43. There are   two main protein export pathways in bacteria. One is (    a    ) system and the other is (   b   ) system. (    a     ) system translocates proteins in   an unfolded form, while (   b    ) translocates fully   folded proteins.
    a. Sec / b. Tat
  44. The   proteins that are translocated by the Sec system are synthesized with a   leader peptide sequence. The leader peptide sequence consists of a basic   amino-terminal end that has positively charged (     ) and (        ) residues, followed   by a (       )   region, and finally an uncharged C-terminal region, which contains a   recognition site for a (       ).
    Lysine, Arginine,   Hydrophobic, Peptidase
  45. For the   cytoplasmic membrane -bound proteins, there are always internal (       ) regions of the   protein that stop translocation and anchor the protein into the membrane   because they bind to the lipid.
  46. A major   chaperone protein in E. coli   is (    a   ). (     a      ) binds to the mature domain (not   leader peptide) of the preprotein and prevents premature folding in the   cytoplasm and aggregation.
  47. The instructor wanted to show the Biol 160 students the existence of the genes   for cell division in E. coli. He therefore exposed E. coli cells to intense   UV light to create mutations in the cells. In doing so, he obtained a pool of   mutants containing supposedly millions of different genotypes.    Now, the question is: what kind of phenotype should he look for?
    Filamentous (no cell   division) or Mini Cell (Division is too quick)
  48. Two important characteristics of DNA polymerases are:       

    (1) they can only extend nucleic acid chains:    i.e., they cannot (                         ) new ones.       

    (2) they add mononucleotides to the (   a ) hydroxyl of deoxyribose   and therefore elongate nucleic acid only at the (   a   ) end.
    Initiate / 3'
  49. Name and function?
    Image Upload
    • 2-Oxo Dehydrogenase Complex
    • Channeling and oxidizing pyruvate or alpha-keto glutarate
  50. Name & Function?
    Image Upload
    • Chlorosome
    • Light Harvesting
  51. Name & Function?
    Image Upload
    • Flagella
    • Movement
  52. Name & Function?
    Image Upload
    • Gas Vessicle
    • Allow to float in lakes or ponds
  53. Name & Function?
    Image Upload
    • Glycocalyx
    • Various function (e.g. contributes to biofilm formation)
  54. Name & Function
    Image Upload
    • Glycogen
    • Food storage
  55. Name & Function?
    Image Upload
    • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
    • Protecting the   membrane from certain kinds of chemical atack (often as an endotoxin)
  56. Name & Function?
    Image Upload
    • Magnetosome
    • Sense earth's magnetic field
  57. Name & Function?
    Image Upload
    • Nucleoid
    • Amorphous mass of DNA
  58. Name & Function?
    Image Upload
    • Peptidoglycan
    • Main structural   component of cell wall
  59. Name & Function?
    Image Upload
    • Pili
    • Communication (e.g. DNA sharing)
  60. Name & Function
    Image Upload
    • Ribosome
    • Protein Synthesis
  61. Know the labeled structures...

    Image Upload
  62. Replication Fork
    Image Upload
    • Starting at upper left, going clockwise:
    • DNA Polymerase
    • SSB
    • Helicase
    • Primase
    • Primer
  63. Image Upload
    Assuming this figure goes upstream --> downstream, identify the activator and repressor
    • 1= Activator
    • 2= Repressor
  64. Under conditions where methionine must be the first amino acid, what protein would be coded for by the following mRNA?
    Image Upload
  65. Which biological molecule carries a information bridge between an mRNA codon and an amino acid?
  66. How do you call an RNA containing catalytic activity?
  67. In PTS, what is the ultimate energy source for the transport of sugar?

Card Set Information

Biol 160 Exam 2 (Fill In Blanks)
2013-10-30 01:48:51
Microbial Physiology

Microbial Physiology
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