PHRD5015 Lecture 15 (Ju) - Intro to Immunology

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daynuhmay
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PHRD5015 Lecture 15 (Ju) - Intro to Immunology
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2013-10-30 07:57:43
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PHRD5015 Intro Immunology
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Intro to Immunology
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  1. 2 anatomical barriers to fighting infection
    • 1) skin
    • 2) mucous membranes
  2. which type of immunity consists of the "sensors"?
    innate immune system
  3. 4 functions of the innate immune system
    • 1) engulf
    • 2) eliminate
    • 3) induce inflammation
    • 4) call & activate adaptive system
  4. what the innate immune system senses (3)
    • 1) PAMPs
    • 2) DAMPs
    • 3) absence of self markers
  5. general TLR signal transduction pathway
    TLR recognizes & binds to microbial ligand -> IRAK1/4 complex -> TRAF -> TAK1 -> MAPK pathway + p-IKK -> p-IB -> NF-B  release & translocation to nucleus
  6. steps in innate initiation of adaptive response
    DC TLR recognizes/binds PAMPs -> migration to lymph nodes -> presentation of Ag-MHC complex + costimulatory molecules -> naive T cell activation
  7. characteristics of T cells (4)
    • 1) derived from thymus
    • 2) survey surfaces of body cells
    • 3) release lymphokines & cytotoxic mediators
    • 4) must come in contact w/ infected cells to kill
  8. characteristics of B cells (4)
    • 1) derived from bone marrow
    • 2) release antibodies
    • 3) protect extracellular spaces (tissue fluids, blood, secretions)
    • 4) neutralization of pathogens does not require contact with B cell
  9. function of Th1 cells
    activates cytotoxic (Tc) cells & macrophages
  10. function of Th2 cells
    activates B cells (promoting Ig production)
  11. humoral immune response
    Ab response
  12. what B cell receptors are also known as
    antibodies
  13. lymphocyte surface/Ag receptors (2)
    • 1) TCRs
    • 2) B cell receptors
  14. what is the estimated number of different Ag receptors humans are able to make?
    1014
  15. part of pathogen recognized by lymphocyte
    epitope
  16. rate of lymphocyte doubling
    6-12hrs
  17. CTL effectors (3) & main function
    • 1) FasL
    • 2) perforins
    • 3) granzymes

    Main fcn: target-cell destruction
  18. Th1 effectors (4) & main functions
    • 1) TNF-
    • 2) IFN-
    • 3) GM-CSF
    • Main fcn: promote macrophage activation

    • 4) IL-2
    • Main fcn: activate CTLs
  19. Th2 effectors (4) & main function
    • 1) CD40L
    • 2) IL-4
    • 3) IL-5
    • 4) IL-6

    Main fcn: B-cell activation
  20. effector expressed by both Th1 and Th2
    IL-3
  21. CD expressed by Th cells
    CD4
  22. CD expressed on Tc cells
    CD8
  23. characteristics of Treg's (3)
    • 1) CD4+CD25+
    • 2) IL-10 expression
    • 3) suppress immune response (negative regulation)
  24. major components of innate immune system (3)
    • 1) barriers
    • 2) phagocytes
    • 3) pattern recognition molecules (complement, TLRs)
  25. major components of adaptive immune system (3)
    • 1) lymphocytes
    • 2) Ag-specific receptors
    • 3) Ab's
  26. most abundant Ab in blood/tissue fluids
    only Ab that can pass placenta
    IgG
  27. most important Ab in secretions (saliva, tears, milk, genitourinary fluids)
    IgA
  28. main form of Ab inserted into B cell membrane as Ag receptor
    IgD
  29. first Ab to appear in serum after immunization
    very efficient at activating complement
    very large (doesn't get into tissue fluids easily)
    IgM
  30. Ab that causes Type I rxn
    important in resistance to parasites
    IgE

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