CDO 431 Exam Review 2

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  1. Acoustic of Speech (3 parts)
    • Intensity of Speech
    • Energy
    • Hearing Loss
  2. Intensity of Speech
    • Whisper = 45 dB SPL
    • Normal Conversational speech = 65 dB SPL
    •   (65 dB SPL = 45 dBHL on an audiogram)
    • Average Shout = 85 dB SPL
  3. Energy
    • vowels have more energy than consonants
    • not all consonants are made up of the same energy
    •   /r/ vs. /th/
  4. Hearing Loss
    • consonants: even a mild hearing loss will impact the perception of many of the consonants
    • vowels: disruption will only occur in individuals with moderate (or poorer) hearing loss
  5. Temporal Parameters of Speech
    • Vowels: 130-360 msec
    • Consonants: 20-150 msec
    • Average speech: ranges from 4.4 to 5.9 syllables per second
    • Hearing Loss: rapid speech rates are more difficult for those with hearing loss
  6. Redundancy of speech vs. Noise
    • speech is highly redundant
    • Signal-to-noise ration is essential for speech perception of all listeners
  7. Signal-to-noise ratio needed for different hearing types
    • normal hearing patient need +10 dB S/N
    • sensorineural hearing losses need +15-20 dB S/N
  8. Redundancy within the Communication Model
    • within the speaker: appropriate use of tone, stress, and articulation. vocabulary
    • within the message: # of syllables, # words, context, intensity of speech
    • within the environment: amount of noise and reverb., # of situational cues
    • within the listener: familiarity with the rules of language and the vocab. knowledge of the topic on conversation, HEARING ABILITY
  9. Redundancy within linguistic constraints
    • linguistic constraints: enhance speech perception and redundancy
    • syntactic constraints
    • semantic constraints
    • situational constraints
  10. Noise within the Communication Model
    • within the speaker: poor syntax, abnormal articulation, improper stress or inflection
    • within the environment: poor lighting, visual distractions, competing auditory signals and reverb
    • within the listener: lack of knowledge re: the rules of language, inability to identify the topic of conversation and generally poor listening skills
  11. Auditory Perception of Speech
    • Detection
    • Discrimination
    • Identification
    • Attention
    • Memory
    • Closure
    • Comprehension
  12. Define Auditory Training
    • A process of teaching the child or adult with hearing impairment to take full advantage of available auditory clues and maximize the use of their hearing. Carhart, 1960
    • The creation of special communication conditions in which teachers and audiologists help hearing impaired children acquire many of the auditory perception abilities that normally hearing children acquire… Erber, 1982
  13. Candidates for Auditory Training (4 criteria)
    • Children with congenital SNHL
    • Children who acquire significant hearing loss
    • Cochlear implant recipients
    • Adults with significant hearing disability
  14. History of Auditory Training
    • Goldstein (1939)- introduced the acoustic method
    •   Involved systematic stimulation of individual speech sounds , syllables, words and sentences
    •   Used with severely/profoundly deaf children

    • WWII
    •   Proved that veterans (adults) could benefit from auditory training

    • Carhart’s Childhood Procedures
    • 1. Development of awareness of sound
    • 2. Development of gross discrimination
    • 3. Development of broad discrimination among simple speech patterns
    • 4. Development of finer discrimination for speech
  15. Reasons for Assessment before beginning Auditory Training
    • determines if auditory training is warranted
    • Identify specific areas which need to be emphasized
    • Gather pre and post therapy data to document if improvement occurred
  16. Current Assessment Approaches for Children
    Aud. Perception
    •  Word Intelligibility by Picture Identification (WIPI)
    • Northwestern University Children’s perception of Speech (NU-CHIPS)
    • Six Sound Test by Ling /m/ /a/ /u/ /i/ /s/ /∫/
    • Test of Auditory Comprehension
    • Glendonald Auditory Screening procedure (GASP)
    • Developmental approach to successful Listening.(DASL)
  17. Current Assessment Approaches for Adults
    Aud. Perception
    • Northwestern University (NU-6) 
    • California Consonant Test (CCT)
    • Speech perception in Noise (SPIN)
    • Quick Speech in Noise test (QuickSin)
    • Central Institute for the Deaf (CID) Everyday Sentences
  18. Methods of Auditory training
    • Analytic 
    • Synthetic
    • Pragmatic
    • Eclectic*
  20. GASP (Erber, 1982)
    • Training is based on the GASP assessment
    • Used primarily with children
    • Flexible and highly adaptive

    • Three training approaches can be used:
    • Natural conversational approach
    • Moderately structured approach
    • Practice on specific tasks
  21. Developmental Approach to Successful Listening II,DASL II (Stout & Windle, 1994)
    • Sequential and very structured
    • Hierarchy of listening skills worked on in brief individual sessions
    • Appropriate for all ages

    • Focus on:
    • Sound awareness
    • Phonetic listening
    • Auditory comprehension
  22. SKI-HI (Clark & Watkins, 1985)
    • Developed as a home program for infants with hearing loss and their families.
    • 4 Phases (based on age)
    • 11 general skills
  23. Define WATCH
    • Watch the talker’s mouth (speechreading)
    • Ask specific questions
    • Talk about your hearing loss
    • Change the situation
    • Health care knowledge
  24. 3 Communication Styles
    • Passive
    • Aggressive
    • Assertive
Card Set:
CDO 431 Exam Review 2
2013-10-30 17:50:01
Audiological Rehabilitation

Audiological Rehabilitation
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