Biology2: Phylogeny

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Taqito89
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24398
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Biology2: Phylogeny
Updated:
2010-06-21 13:27:25
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Biology Phylogeny
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Lecture Material For Systematics and Phylogeny.
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  1. What is Systematics?
    The Study of biological diversity in an evolutionary context.
  2. What Tools does one have for Systematics?
    • - Molecular Comparisons
    • - usually (rRNA or mtDNA)
    • - DNA-DNA Hybridization
    • - restriction maps (restriction enzymes)
    • - DNA Sequence analysis
  3. What is Taxonomy?
    The science concerned with naming and classifying the divers forms of life.
  4. How many Taxonomic groups are there?
    The number can always change but for now there are 8: Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.
  5. Who is Carl Woese?
    He was the first to suggest a 3-domain system for Taxonomy.
  6. What are the 3 domains?
    • - Bacteria: Prokaryote
    • - Archaea: Prokaryote
    • - Eukarya: Eukaryote
  7. What makes the domain Archaea special?
    • - Archaea are prokaryotic cells but they make DNA and proteins more like Eukaryotes.
    • - Archaea have about 44% different DNA than Bacteria and Eukarya.
  8. What is Binomial Nomenclature?
    • The two name identification for individual organisims on the species level.
    • Ex:
    • Genus Species
    • Panthera Leo
    • (African Lion)
  9. What are the 3 Phylogenetic Groupings?
    • Monophyletic: Ancestor and ALL descendants.
    • Paraphyletic: Ancestor with some of its descendants.
    • Polyphyletic: Somewhat Random. Descendant from 2 ancestors.
  10. What type of Phylogenetic Grouping is this?
    Monophyletic
  11. What type of Phylogenetic Grouping is this?
    Paraphyletic
  12. What type of Phylogenetic Grouping is this?
    Polyphyletic
  13. What is Homology?
    • What organisms have the same structures for different functions or purposes.
    • - likeness attributed to shared ancestry
  14. What is Analogy?
    • When organisms have different evolutionary backgrounds but function the same.
    • - likeness due to similar ecological roles and natural selection due to convergent evolution
    • - not due to similar ancestry.
  15. What is Molecular Homeoplasy?
    - Analogoeus species that have similar DNA sequences that evolved independantly in 2 species.
  16. Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny
    1. Translate
    2. Ligitimate?
    3. Supporters?
    • 1. Embryos Leave Evidence for Evolutionary Background
    • - Ontogeny- individual development
    • - Recapitulates- repeats
    • - Phylogeny- evolutionary descent
    • 2. Nope, its all Bullshit!
    • 3. Ernst Haeckel
  17. What is Phenetics?
    • A type of Systematics:
    • - based on a number of similarities and differences
    • - not taking into account homology or analogy
    • - using all phylogenetic groupings.
  18. Classical Evolutionary Systematics:
    • - George Gaylord Simpson
    • - most commonly used up until recently
    • - based on shared homologous structures
    • - takes into account the amount of adaptive evolutionary change. (novelties)
    • - Monophyletic and Paraphyletic groupings.
  19. What is Cladistics?
    • A phylogenetic Systematics:
    • - based on shared homologous structures
    • - only monophyletic groupings
    • - began by Will Henrig?
  20. What are the Assumptions of Cladistics?
    • 1. Must use Monophyletic Groupings
    • 2. Descent must follow a Biforcating Pattern
    • 3. Changes in characteristics occur in lineages over time
  21. What are Synapomorphies?
    • - shared derived characteristics
    • - A shared taxa from a common ancestor with the same taxa.
  22. What are Plesiomorphies?
    • - Ancesteral characteristics
    • - Shared primitive characteristics
    • - Outgroupings
  23. This is an example of a:
    Phylogram
  24. This is an example of an:
    Ultrametric Tree
  25. What is Parsimony?
    When there are multiple possiblities the simplest is probably correct.
  26. This is an example of what?
    Maximum Liklihood
  27. What type of phylogenetic tree is this an example of?
    A pitfall

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