Medical terms Chapter 10,11,12,13

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Medical terms Chapter 10,11,12,13
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Medical terms Chapter 10,11,12,13 for UNLV DPT program
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  1. Heart
    The muscular cone-shaped organ the siza of a fist, located behind the sternum and between the lungs. The pumping action of the heart sends blood circulating through the body. The heart has two upper layers, the right ang left atrium; and two lower chambers, the right and left ventricles. The atria receive blood from veins and the ventricle pump blood through arteries. The atrial septum seperates the atria and the ventricular septum seperates the ventricles. the tricuspiod and mitral valves are referred to as the atrioventricular (AV) valves. Valves keep blood flowing in the right directions.
  2. Tricuspid Valve
    located between the right atrium and the right ventricle
  3. Mitral Valve
    Located between the left atrium and the left ventricle
  4. Semilunar Valves
    Pulmonary and aortic valves located between the right ventricle and the polmunary artert and between the left ventricle and the aorta.
  5. Pericardium
    Two-layer sac consisting of an extrenal fibrous and internal serous layer. The serous laer secretes a fluid that fcilitates movement of the heart. This layer also covers the heart and is called the epicardium.
  6. What are the three layers of the hear?
    • Epicardium-Covers the heart
    • Myocardiun-The mddle thick muscualr layer
    • Endocardium-Inner linning of the heart
  7. Blood vessels
    tube like structures that carry blood throughout the body.
  8. Ateries
    Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. All arteries, with the exception of the polmunary artery, carry oxygen and other nutrients from the ehart to the body cells. (Profusion) The polumnary artery, in contrast, carries carbon dioxide and other wastye products from the heart to the lungs.
  9. Aterioles
    The smallest arteries
  10. Aorta
    The largest artery in the body, originating at the left ventricle and descending through the thorax and abdomen.
  11. Veins
    Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. All veins, with exception of the pulmonary veins, carry blood containing carbon dioxide and other waste products. The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
  12. Venules
    Smallest Veins
  13. Venae Cavae
    Largest veins in the body. The inferior vena cava carroes blood to the heart from th body part below the diaphragm, and the superioir vena cava returns blood to the heart from the upper part of the body.
  14. Capillaries
    Microscopic blood veseesl that conect arterioles with venules,. Matreials are passed between the blood and tissue through the capillary walls.
  15. Blood
    Composed of plasman and formed elements, such as erythrocytes, leukocyets, and thrombocytes (platelets)
  16. Plasma
    Clear, straw colored, liquid portion of blood in which cells are suspended. Plasma is approximately 90% water and comprises approximately 55% of the total blood volume.
  17. Serum
    Clear, watery fluid portion of the bloos tat remains after a clot has formed.
  18. Lymph
    Transparent, colorless, tissue fluid that, on entering the lymphatic system is called lymph. Lymph contains lymphosytes and monocytes and flows in a one way direction to the heart. Lymph is similar to blood plasma.
  19. Lymphatic vessels
    Similar to veins, lymphatic vessels transport lymph from body tissue to the chest, where it enters the cariovascular system. The vessels begin as capilalries spread throughout the body then merge into the larger tubes that eventually become ducts in the chest. They provide a one-way flow for lymph gathered from the tissues t oducts in the chest, where lymph enters through veins into the circulatory system.
  20. Lymph Nodes
    Small, spherical bodies composed of lymphoid tissue. They may be singular or grouped together along the path of the lymph vessels. The nodes filter lymph to keep substances such as bateria and other forgein agents from entering the blood. The also produce lymphocytes.
  21. Spleen
    Located in the left side of the abdominal caity between the stomach and the diaphragm. In adulthood, the spleen is the largest lymphatic organ in the body. Blood, rather than lymph flows through the spleen. blood is cleansed of microorganisms in the spleen. The spleen stores blood and destroys worn out red blood cells.
  22. Thymus Gland
    One of the primary lymphatic orgnas, it is located anterior to the ascending aorta and posterior to the sternum between the lungs. It plays an important role in the development of the body's immune system, particularly from infancy to puberty. Around puberty the thymus gland atrophies so that most of the gland is connective tissue.
  23. Angi/o
    Vessel (usually refers to blood vessels)
  24. Aort/o
    Aorta
  25. Arteri/o
    Artery
  26. atri/o
    Atrium
  27. Cardi/o
    Heart
  28. Lymphaden/o
    Lymph node
  29. lymph/o
    lymph, pymph tissue
  30. myel/o
    bone marrow (also means spinalcord Ch. 15)
  31. Phleb/o, ven/o
    Vein
  32. plasm/o
    plasma
  33. splen/o
    Spleen (only one E in the word root)
  34. thym/o
    Thymus gland
  35. Valv/o, valvul/o
    Valve
  36. Ventricul/o
    Ventricle
  37. ather/o
    yellowish, fatty plaque
  38. Ech/o
    Sound
  39. electr/o
    electricity, electrical activity
  40. isch/o
    deficiency, blockage (ischemia- blockage in blood, restricted blod flow)
  41. therm/o
    heat
  42. thromb/o
    clot (Thrombosis)
  43. brady-
    Slow
  44. -ac
    pertaining to
  45. -apheresis
    removal
  46. -graph
    instrument used to record.
  47. -odynia
    pain (anodynia, absence of pain)
  48. -penia
    abnormal reducton in number
  49. -poiesis
    formation
  50. -sclerosis
    hardening (atherosclerosis, hardening of yellow fatty plaque in the veins)
  51. angioma
    tumor composed of blood vessels , angi-oma
  52. angiostenosis
    Narrowing of the blood vessel
  53. aortic stenosis
    narrowing of the aorta
  54. arteriosclerosis
    Hardening of the arteries
  55. atherosclerosis
    Hardening of the fatty plaque
  56. bradycardia
    Condition of a slow hear. Rate of less than 60 beats per minute.
  57. Cardiodynia
    Pain in the heary
  58. Cadiomegaly
    Enlargement of the heart
  59. Cardiomyopathy
    Disease of the heart muscle
  60. Cardiovalvulitits
    Inflammation of the valves of the heart, also valvulitis
  61. Endocarditis
    Inflammation of the inner linings of the heart (particularly of the heart valve linings)
  62. Ischemia
    deficiency of blood flow
  63. myocarditis
    inflammation of the muscle of the heart
  64. Pericarditis
    Inflammation of the sac surrounging the heart
  65. Phlebitis
    Inflammation of a vein
  66. Polyarteritis
    Inflammation of many (sites in the) arteries
  67. Tachycardia
    Abnormal state of rapid heart (rate of more than 100 beats or more) Contrast with bradycardia. BRADY v. TACHY
  68. Thrombophlebitis
    Inflammation of a vein associated with a clot.
  69. Hematoma
    A tumor composed of blood (collection of blood resulting from a broken blood vessel)
  70. multiple myeloma
    tumors of bone marrow (Myel-bone marrow, or also spinal cord.)
  71. Pancytopenia
    abnormal reduction of all (blood) cells (Pan-all, cyto-cells, penia-abnormal reduction)
  72. Thrombosis
    abnormal condition of a bllod clot
  73. Thrombus
    blooted clot attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein
  74. Lymphadenitis
    Inflammation of the lymph nodes
  75. Lymphadenopathy
    Disease of the lymph nodes (characterized by abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes associated with an infection or malignancy)
  76. lymphoma
    Tumor of lymphatic tissue
  77. splenomegaly
    enlargement of the spleen
  78. thymoma
    Tumor of the thymus gland
  79. Acute coronary syndrome
    ACS sudden symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the heart indicating unstable angina or acute myocardial infarcation (Angina is chest pain or discomfort that occurs when an area of your heart muscle doesn't get enough oxygen-rich blood.)
  80. aneurysm
    ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall
  81. angina pectoris
    chect pain, which mat radiate to the left arm and jaw, that occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the heart.
  82. Arrhymia
    Any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern
  83. Atrial fibrillation
    AFib - A cardiac arrythmia characterized by chaotic, rapid electrical impulses in the atria. The atria quiver instead of contracting, causing inrregular ventricular response and the ejection of a reduced amount of blood. The blood that remains in the atria becomes static, increasing the risk of clot formation, which may lead to a stroke. Two types of AFib are paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, which is intermittent, and chronic atrial fibrillation, which is sustained)
  84. cardiac arrest
    sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation, which requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
  85. Cardiac tamponade
    acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation on the pericardial cavity
  86. Coarctation of the aorta
    congenital cardiac condition characterized by narrowing of the aorta
  87. Congenital heart disease
    Heart abnormality persent at birth
  88. Congestive heart failure
    CHF innability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body to supply the tissues and organs with nutrients and oxygen.
  89. Coronary artery disease
    CAD A condition that reduces the flow of blood through coronary arteries to the myocardium, denying the myocardial tissues of sufficient oxygen and nutrienst to function fully, most often caused by coronary atheroscelrosis (also called heart failure [HF])
  90. Coronary Occulsion
    Obstruction of an artery of the heart, usually from atherosclerosis. Coronaty occulsion can lead to acute myocardial infarction
  91. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
    condition of thrombus in a deep vein of the body. Most often occurs in the lower expremities. A clot can break off and travel to the lungs causing a pulmonary embolism.
  92. hypersensitize heart disease
    HHD. Disoreder of the heart brought about by persistent high blood pressure
  93. intermittent claudication
    pain and discomfort in calf muscles while walking, a condition seen in occulsive artery disease
  94. mitral valve stenosis
    a narrowing of the mitral valve from scarring, usually caused by episodes of theumatic fever
  95. myocardial infarction
    death, necrosis of a portion of the myocardium caused by lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply (also called a heart attack)
  96. peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
    disease of the arteries, other than those of the heart and brain that affects blood circulation, such as atherosclerosis and Raynaud disease. The most common symptom of peripheral atherosclerosis is intermittent claudication (pain and discomfort in the calves)
  97. rheumatic heart disease
    Damage to the hear muscle or heart valves caused by one or more episodes of rheumatic fever
  98. varicose veins
    distended or tortuous veins usuaslly found in lower extremeties.
  99. anemia
    reduction in the amount of hemoglobin in the red bloodcells. Anemia may be
  100. embolus
    blood clot or forgein material, such as air of fat, that enters the bloodstream and moves until it lodges at another point in the circulation
  101. hemophilia
    inherited bleeding disease most commonly cause by a deficiency of the coagulation factor VIII
  102. Leukemia
    malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow.
  103. Hodgkin disease
    Mailgnant disoreder og the lymphatic tissue characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually beginning in the cervical nodes
  104. infectious mononucleosis
    • malignant disoreder caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by
    • swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fatigue, and fever. The disease
    • affects mostly young people and is usually transmitted
  105. angioplasty
    surgical repair of blood vessels
  106. atherectomy
    excision off fatty plaque (from a blocked artery using a specialized catheter and rotary cutter
  107. endarterectomy
    excision within the artery (excission of plaque from the arterial wall) this procedure is usually namef for th artery to be cleaned out, such as a carotis endartectomy, which means removal of plaque from the wall of the carotid artery.
  108. pericardiocentesis
    suregical puncture to aspirate fluid frim the outer layer (pericardial sac) (used to treat cardiac tamponade)
  109. phlebectomy
    excision of a vein
  110. phlebotomy
    incision into a vein (to remove blood or to give blood o intravenous fluids). Also called venipuncture
  111. valvuloplasty
    surgical repair of a valve
  112. splenectomy
    excision of the spleen
  113. splenopexy
    fixation of the spleen
  114. thymectomy
    excision of the thymus gland
  115. aneurysmextomy
    surgical removal of an aneurysm (ballooning of a weaker portion of an arterial wall
  116. atrail fibrillation ablation
    a procedure in which normal cells that trigger atrial fibrillation are destroyed by using radiofrequency energy
  117. cardiac pacemaker
    battery-powered apparatus implanted under the skin with leads placed on the heart
  118. coronary artery bipass graft CABG
    surgical technique to bring a new blood supply to heart muscle by detouring around block arteries
  119. coronary stent
    a supportive scaffolding device implanted in the coronary artery; used to prevent closure of the artery after angioplasty or atherectomy
  120. embolectomy
    surgical removal of an embolus or clot
  121. bone marrow aspiration
    a syringe is used to aspirate a sample of the liquid portion of the bone marrow, ususally from the ilium, for study; used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease and condition of the blood cells.
  122. bone marrow biopsy
    a needle puncture to obtain a sample of bone marrow, usually from the ilium, for study; used to diagnose, stage, and monitor condition of disease and condition of blood cells.
  123. Bone marrow transplant
    infusion of normal bone marrow cells from a donr with matching cells and tissue to a recipient with a certain type of leukemia or anemia
  124. angiography
    radiographic imaging of blood vessels ( the procedure is named for the vessel being imaged)
  125. angioscope
    instrument used for visual examination of the blood vessel.
  126. angioscopy
    visual examination of the blood vessel
  127. aortagram
    radiographic image of the aorta
  128. arteriogram
    radiographic image of the artery
  129. venogram
    radiographic image of the vein
  130. venography
    radiographic imaging of the veins
  131. echocardiogram ECHO
    record of the heart using sound
  132. electrocardiogram EKG
    record of the electrical activity of the heart
  133. Digital subraction angiography
    a process of digital radiographic imaginig of the blood vessels that "subtracts" or removes structures not being studied
  134. Doppler ultrasound
    a study that uses sound for the detection of blood flow within the vessels: used to assess intermittent claudication (pain in calf), deep vein thrombosis (clots in the deep veins) and other blood flow abnormailities
  135. Exercise stress test
    a study that evaluates cardiac function furing physical stress by riding a bike or walking on a treadmill. EKG, ECHO and nuclear medicine scanning are three types of tests performed while exercising. ECHO is fast becoming the preferred choise of testing over EFG
  136. single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
    a nuclear medicin scan that visualizes the heart from several different angels. A tracer substance such as sestamibi or thallium is injected intravenously. The SPECT scanner creates images from the tracer absorbed by the body tissues. It is used to assess damage to cardiac tissue
  137. Thallium test
    a nuclear medicine test used to diagnose coronary artery disease and assess trevascularization after coronary artery bypass surgery.
  138. transesophadeal echocardiogram
    TEE - an ultrasound test that examines cardiac function and structure by using an ultrasound probe plaec in the esophagus, which provides veiws of the heart structures
  139. Cardiac catherization
    an examination to deteremin the condition of the heart and surrounding blood vessels. A catheter is passed into the heart through a blood vessel and is used to record pressure and inject contrast medium, enabling the visualization of the coronary arteries, great vessels, and the heart chambers; used most frequently to evaluate cheast pain and coronary artery disease.
  140. impedance plethysmography IPG
    measures venous flow of the extremeits with a plethysmograph to detect colts by measuring changes in blood volume and resistance (impedance) in the vein; used to detect deep vein thrombosis
  141. auscultation
    hearing sounds with in the body through a stethoscope
  142. sphygmomanometer
    devide used for measuring blood pressure
  143. C-reactive protein (CRP)
    a blood test to measure the amount of C-reactive protein in the blood, which, when elevated, indicates inflammation in the body. It is sometimes used in assessing the risk of cardiovascular disease
  144. creatine phosphokinase (CPK)
    a blood test used to measure the level of creating phosphokinase, an enzyme of heart and skeletal muscle released into the blood after muscle injury or necrosis. The test is useful in evaluating patients with acute myocardial infarction.
  145. homocysteine
    a blood test used to measure the amount of homocysteine in the blood. Homocysteine is an amino acid that if elevated may indicate increased risk of cardiovasuclat disease
  146. lipid profile
    A blood test to measure the amount of lipids in the blood. Used to evaluate risk of CVD and to monitor treatment of existing CVD provide levels of total cholesterol HDL, LDL and VLDL and triglycerides
  147. troponin
    blood test that measure troponin released 3 hours after necrosis of heart cells, remain fro 7-10 days. useful to diagnose myocardial infarction
  148. coagulation time
    blood test to determine the time it takes for blood clots to form
  149. complete blood count (CBC) differential count (Diff)
    basic blood screening that measures hemoglobin, gematicrit, red blood cell number and morphology. leukocyte count, white blood cell differential and platelet counts. This is an automated test, easy and fast. Provides much information
  150. Hematocrit HCT
    measures red blood cells count
  151. Hemoglobin (Hgb)
    blood test used to determine the concentration of oxygen carrying components in red blood cells
  152. prothrombin time
    test used to determin certain coagulation activity defects and to monitor anticoagulation therapy for patients taking Coumadin, an oral anti coagulant
  153. hemostasis
    stopage of bleeding
  154. plasmapheresis
    removal of plasma
  155. thrombolysis
    dissolution of a clot
  156. extravasation
    escape of blood from the blood vessel into the tissue
  157. lumen
    space within a tubular part of organ, such as the space within a blood vessel
  158. occlude
    to close tightl, to block
  159. dyscrasia
    abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood clot
  160. hemorrhage
    rapid loss of blood, as in bleeding
  161. ACS
    acute coronary syndrome
  162. AFib
    atrial fibrillation
  163. AV
    atrioventricular
  164. BP
    blood pressure
  165. CABG
    coronary artery bypass graft
  166. CAD
    coronary artery disease
  167. CBC and Diff
    complete blood count and differential
  168. CCU
    coronary care unit
  169. CHF
    congestive heart failure
  170. CPK
    creatine phosphokinase
  171. CPR
    cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  172. CRP
    C-reactive protein
  173. DSA
    digital subtraction angiography
  174. DVT
    deep vein thrombosis
  175. ECG, EKG
    electrocardiogram
  176. ECHO
    echcardiogram
  177. HCT
    hematocrit count
  178. Hgb
    hemoglobin
  179. HHD
    hypertensive heart disease
  180. ICD
    implantable cardiac defibrillator
  181. IPG
    impedance plethysmography
  182. MI
    myocardial infraction
  183. PAD
    peripheral arterioal disease
  184. PT
    prothrombin time
  185. PTCA
    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
  186. RBC
    red blood cell (erythrocyte)
  187. SPECT
    single-proton emission computed tomography
  188. TEE
    transesophageal echocardiogram
  189. WBC
    white bloodcell count
  190. Cardia
    area arround the opening of the esophagus
  191. antrum
    lower portion of the stomach
  192. cecum
    blind U-shaped pouch that is the first portion of the large intestine
  193. peritoneum
    serous saclike lining of the abdominal and pelvic cavities
  194. an/o
    anus
  195. antr/o
    antrum
  196. cec/o
    cecum
  197. col/o colon/l
    colon
  198. duoden/o
    duodenum
  199. enter/o
    intestine
  200. gastr/o
    stomach
  201. ile/o
    ileum
  202. jejun/o
    jejunum
  203. or/o stomat/o
    mouth
  204. proct/o rect/o
    rectum
  205. cheil/o
    lip
  206. cholangi/o
    bile duct
  207. chol/e
    gall, bile
  208. choledoch/o
    common bile duct
  209. peritone/o
    peritoneum
  210. polyp/o
    small growth, polyp
  211. sial/o
    salivary gland saliva
  212. steat/o
    fat
  213. uvul/o
    uvula
  214. cholangioma
    tumor of the bile duct
  215. cholecystitis
    inflammation of the gall bladder
  216. choledocholithiasis
    condition of stones in the common bile duct
  217. cholelithiasis
    condition of gallstones
  218. gastroenteritis
    inflammation of the stomache and the entestines
  219. gasteroenterocolitis
    inflammation of the stomach, intestines, and colon
  220. polyposis
    condition of polyps (in the mucous membrane of the intestine, especially the colon high rate from malignancy)
  221. proctoptosis
    prolapse of the rectum
  222. rectocele
    protrusion of the rectum
  223. sialolith
    stones in the salivary glands
  224. steatohepatitis
    inflammation of the liver associated with fat often caused by alcohol use
  225. cirrhosis
    chronic disease of the liver with gradual destruciton of cells and formation of scar tissue commonly caused by alcoholism
  226. Crohn disease
    chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract usually effecting the ileum and characterized by cobblestone ulcarations and the formation of scar tissue that may lead to intestinal obstruction
  227. duodenal ulcar
    ulcer in the doudenum
  228. gastric ulcer
    ulcer in the stomach
  229. gastroesophageal reflux disease
    GERD abnormal backward flow of the gastrointestinal contents into the esophagus, causing hearburn
  230. hemochromatosis
    an iron metabolism disoreder that occurs when too much iron is absorbed from food. resulting in excessive deposits of iron in the tissue. Can cause congestive heart failure, diabetes, cirrhosis, can cancer of the liver
  231. hemorrhoid
    varicose vein in the rectal area, which may be internal or external
  232. ileus
    obstruction of the intestine, often caused by failure of peristalsis
  233. intussusception
    telescoping of a segment of the intestine
  234. peptic ulcer
    gastric of duodenal ulcer
  235. ulcerative colitis
    inflammation of te colon with the formation of ulcers. Bloody diarrhea.
  236. Volvulus
    tesiting or kinking of the intestine, cause intestinal obstruction
  237. antrectomy
    excision of the antrum
  238. celiotomy
    incision into the abdominal cavity
  239. cheilorrhaphy
    suturing of the lip CHEIL/O = LIP
  240. cholecystectomy
    excission og the gallbladder
  241. colectomy
    excission of the colon
  242. colostomy
    creation of an artificial opening inot the colon
  243. diverticulectomy
    excission of the diverticulum
  244. ileostomy
    creation of an artificail opening into the ileum
  245. laparotomy
    incision into the abdomen
  246. Abdominaperineal resection (AandP resection)u
    removal of both the colon and the rectume through both abdominal and perineal approaches; performed to treat colorectal cancer and inglammatory diseases of the lower large intestine. The patient will have a colostomy
  247. Anastomosis
    • an opening created by surgically joining two structures, such as blood
    • vessels or bowel segments.
  248. bariatric surgery
    surgical reduction of the gastric capacity to treat morbid obesity
  249. vagotomy
    cutting certain branches of the vagus nerve, performed with gastric surgery to reduce the amount of gastric acid produced and thuse reduce the recurrance of ulcers.
  250. cholangiogram
    radiographic image of the bile ducts
  251. cholangiography
    radiographic imaging of the bile ducts
  252. cholecystogram
    radiographic image of the gall bladder
  253. CT colonograph
    radiographic imaging of the colon using a CT scanner and software
  254. abdominal ultrasonography
    Process of recording images of internal organs using high frequency sound waves produced by transducer placed directly on the skin covering the abdominal cavity
  255. Barium enema
    series of radiographic images taken of the large intestine after a garium enema has been administered rectally
  256. upper GI series
    series of radiographic images taken of the stomach and duodenum after barium has been swallowed
  257. endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
    • (ERCP) radiographic examination of the biliary tract and pancreatic
    • ducts with contrast media, fluoroscopy, and endoscopy
  258. endoscopic ultrasound EUS
    a procedure using an endoscope fitted with an ultrasound probe that provides images of layers of the intestinal wall; used to detect tumors and cystic growths and for stagin of malignant tumors
  259. fecal occult blood test FOBT
    a test to detect occult blood in feces. It is used to screen for colon cancer or polyps. Occult blood refers to blood that is present but can only be veiwed microscopically (guaiac test)
  260. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibodies test
    a blood test used to determine the presence of H. pylori bacteria. The bateria can be found in lining of the stomach and can cause peptic ulcers.
  261. aphagia
    without swallowing (the inability to swallow)
  262. dyspepsia
    difficult digestion (often used to describe GI symptoms)
  263. gastrodynia
    pain in the stomach
  264. gastromalacia
    softening of the stomach
  265. glossopathy
    disease of the tongue
  266. steatorrhea
    discharge of fat Usually involved with disease of pancrease
  267. steatosis
    abnormal condition of fat. Increase of fat at cellular level usually effecting the liver
  268. stomatogastric
    pertaining to mouth and stomach (stomat/o = mouth)
  269. ascites
    abnormal collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
  270. dysentery
    disorder that invloves inflammation of the intestine (usually the large intestine) associated with diarrhea and abdominal pain
  271. emesis
    expelling matter form the stomach through the mouth. also called vomiting or vomitus
  272. gavage
    process of feeding a person through a nasogastric tube
  273. hematemesis
    vomiting of blood
  274. hematochezia
    passage of bloody feces
  275. melena
    black tarry stool that contains digested blood. result of bleeding in the upper GI tract
  276. Nausea
    urge to vomit or ( emesis )
  277. reflux
    abnormal backward flow
  278. stoma
    surgical opening between an organ and the surface of the body, such as the opening established in the abdominal wall by colostomy, ileostomy, or similar operation. Stoma may also refer to an opening created between body structures or between portions of the intestines.
  279. A&P resection
    abdominoperineal resection
  280. BE
    barium enema
  281. EGD
    esophagogastroduodenoscopy
  282. ERCP
    endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
  283. EUS
    Endoscopic ultrasound
  284. FOBT
    fecal occult blood test
  285. GERD
    gastroesophageal reflux disease
  286. H. pylori
    Helicobacter pylori
  287. IBS
    irritable bowel syndrome
  288. N&V
    nausea and vomiting
  289. PEG
    percutaneus endoscopic gastrostomy
  290. UGI
    upper gastrointestinal
  291. UPPP
    uvulopalatopharyngoplasty
  292. sclera
    outer protective layter of the eye
  293. Cornea
    the transperant anterior part of the sclera. infront of hte aqueous humos and lies over the iris
  294. choroid
    middle layer of the eye. which is interelaced with many blood vessels
  295. iris
    the pigmented muscular structure that lalows light to pass through
  296. pupil
    the opening in the center of the iris
  297. lens
    lies directly behind the pupil it is used to focus and bend light
  298. retina
    innermost layer of the eye. contains the vision receptors
  299. aqueous humor
    found at the anterior caivty of the eye, deep to the cornea
  300. vitreous humor
    the jelly like substance behind the lens in the posterior cavity of hte eye
  301. meibomian glands
    oil glands found in the upper and lower edges of the eyelids the lep to lubricate the eye
  302. Lacrimal glands and ducts
    produce and drain tears.
  303. optic nerve
    carries teh visual impulses from the teina to the brain
  304. conjunctiva
    mucous membrane lining the eyelids and coverin the anterior portion of the sclera
  305. blephar/o
    eyelid
  306. cor/o, core/o, pupill/o
    pupil
  307. corne/o, kerat/o
    conea
  308. dacry/o, lacrim/o
    tear, tear duct
  309. irid/o, ir/o
    iris
  310. ocul/o, opthalm/o
    eye
  311. opt/o
    vision
  312. retin/o
    retina
  313. scler/o
    sclera
  314. cry/o
    cold
  315. dipl/o
    two, double
  316. phot/o
    light
  317. ton/o
    tension, pressure
  318. bi, bin,
    two
  319. -opia
    vision (condition)
  320. -phobia
    abnormal rfear of or aversoin to specific things
  321. -plegia
    paralysis
  322. blepharitis
    inflammation of the eyelids
  323. blepharoptosis
    drooping of the eyelids
  324. conjunctivitis
    inflammation of the conjunctive
  325. dacryocystisis
    inflammation of the tear of lacrimal sac
  326. diplopia
    double vision
  327. endophthalmitis
    inflammation with in the eye
  328. iridoplegia
    paralysis of the iris
  329. leukocoria
    condition of whie cornea
  330. oculomycosis
    abnormal condition of fungus in the eyes
  331. ophthalmalgia
    pain in the eye
  332. ophthalmoplegia
    paralysis of the eye muscles
  333. photophobia
    fear of light abnormal sensitivity to light
  334. retinoblastoma
    tumor arising from the developing retinal cell ( a congenital, malignant tumor)
  335. retinopathy
    diseased condition of the retina
  336. sclerokeratitis
    inflammation of the sclera and the cornea
  337. xerophthalmia
    condition of dry eye (conjunctive and cornea)
  338. amblyopia
    reduced vision in one eye caused by disuse or misuse associated wit hthe strabismus, unequal refractive erros. or impaired vision. The brain represses teh vision in one eye to prevent double vision
  339. astigmatism
    defective curvature of the refractive surface of the eye
  340. cataract
    clouding of the lens of teh eye
  341. chalazion
    obstrcution fo the oil gland of the eyelid
  342. detached retina
    sepeartion of the retina from the choroid in back of the eye
  343. emmetropia Em
    normal refractive condition of the eye.
  344. glaucoma
    eye disorder characterized by optic nerve damage usually caused by intraocular pressue (IOP)
  345. hyperopia
    farsightedness
  346. macular degeneration
    a progressive deterioration of the portion of the retina called teh macula lutea, resulting in loss of central vision
  347. myopia
    nearsightedness
  348. nyctalopia
    poor vision at night of in faint light
  349. nystagmus
    involuntary jerking movements of eyes
  350. pinguecula
    yellowishmass on the conjunctiva that may be related to exposure to ultraviolet light, dry climates, and dust.
  351. presbyopia
    impaired vision as a result of aging.
  352. pterygium
    thin tissue growing into the cornea from the conjunctiva, usually caused from sun exposure
  353. retinitis pigmentosa
    hereditary progressive disease marked by night blindness with atrophy and retinal pigment changes
  354. strabismus
    abnormal condition of squint or cross eyes caused by the visual axes not meeting at the same poitn
  355. sty
    infection of an oil gland in the eyelid hordeolum
  356. enucleation
    surgical removal of the eyeball (also, the removal of any organ that comes out clean and whole)
  357. LASIK
    Laser assisted in situ keratomileusis A laser procedure that reshapes the corneal tissue beneath the surface of the corea to correct astigmatism, hyperopia, and myopia.
  358. phacoemulsification
    method to remove cataracts in which an ultrasonic needle probe breaks up the lens, which is then aspirated
  359. PRK
    Photorefractive keratectomy a procedure for the treatmeant of nearsightedness in which an Excimer laser is used to reshape (flatten) the corneal surface by removing a portion of the cornea.
  360. Retinal photocoagualtion
    a procedure to repair tears in the retina by use of an intense, precisely focused light beam, with causes coagualtion of the tissue protein
  361. scleral buckling
    A procedure to repair a detachecd retina. A strip of sclera is resected or a fold is made in the sclera. An exoplant is used to hold nd buckle the sclera
  362. trabeculectomy
    srugical creation of a drain to reduce intraocular presure (used to treat glaucoma)
  363. Vitrectomy
    surgical remoavl of all or part of the vitreous humor
  364. Fluorescin angiography
    photographic process of recording blood vesseds of the ey with a fluorescent dye
  365. keratometer
    an instrument used to measure the cornea
  366. tonometer
    instrument used to measure pressure (within the eye, used to diagnose glaucoma)
  367. binocular
    pertaining to two or both eyes
  368. ophthalmic
    pertianing to the eye
  369. miotic
    agent that constricts the pupil
  370. mydriatic
    agent that dilates the pupil
  371. visual acuity
    sharpness of vision for either distance or near
  372. ARMD
    age related mascular degeneration
  373. Ast
    Astigmatism
  374. EM
    emmetropia
  375. IOP
    intraocular pressure
  376. Ophth
    ophthalmology
  377. VA
    visual acuity
  378. auricle (pinna)
    external structure located on both sides of the head. The auricle directs sound waves into the external auditory meatus
  379. external auditory meatus (canal)
    short tube taht ends at the tympanic membrance. The inner part lies within the temporal bone of the skull and contains the glands that secrete earwax
  380. tympanic (ear drum)
    semitransparent membrane that sepeartes the external auditory meatus and the middle ear cavity. The tympanic membrane transmits sound vibrations to the ossicles.
  381. Eustchian tube
    Connects the middle ear and the pharynx. It equalizes air pressure on both sides of the eardrum
  382. Ossicles
    bones in the middle ear. Malleus, incus, stapes
  383. Labyrinth (inner ear)
    bony spaces within the temporal bone of the skull. It contains the cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule.
  384. Cochlea
    snail shaped and contains the organs of hearing. The cochlea connects to the oval window in the middle ear.
  385. Semicircular canals and vestibule
    contains receptors and endolymph that help the body to maintain its sense of balance(equilibrium)
  386. mastoid bone and cells
    located int the skell bone behind the external auditory meatus
  387. audi/o
    hearing
  388. aur/o, aur/o, ot/o
    ear
  389. myring/o
    tympanic membrane
  390. staped/o
    stapes
  391. tympan/o
    tympanic membrane, middle ear.
  392. vestibul/o
    vestibule
  393. myrangitis
    inflammation of the tympanic membrane
  394. otalgia
    pain in the ear
  395. ototpyorrhea
    discharge of mucos from the ear.
  396. otorrhea
    discharge from the ear
  397. otosclerosis
    hardening of the ear (stapes) caused by irregular development and resulting in hearing loss)
  398. tympanitis
    inflammation of the typmantic memebrane and middle ear.
  399. acoustic neuroma
    benign tumor within the auditory canal growing from the acoustic nerve (cranial nerve VIII), vestibulocochlear nerve); may cause hearing loss and may damage structures of the cerebellum as it grows
  400. ceruminoma
    tumor of the gland that secretes earwax (Cerumen)
  401. cholesteatoma
    cystlike mass composed of epithelial cells and cholestrerol occuring in the middle ear, may be associated with chronic otitis media
  402. Meniere disease
    chronic disease of the inner ear characterized by dizziness, ringing in the ear, and hearing loss
  403. Otitis Externa
    inflammation of the outer ear
  404. presbycusis
    hearing impairment in old age
  405. tinnitus
    ringing in the ear
  406. vertigo
    a sense that either one's own body (subjective) of the environment (objective) is revolving; may indicate inner ear disease
  407. cochlear implant
    pertianing to the cochlea implant
  408. AOM
    acute otitis media
  409. EENT
    Eyes ears nose and throat
  410. ENT
    Ears nose and throat
  411. OM
    otitis media

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