psych test #3 chapters 9 & 10

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psych test #3 chapters 9 & 10
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  1. Types of Intelligence tests
    • Stanford-Binet
    • Catell’s Culture Free
    • WAIS & WISC
    • Ravens
    • Progressive Matrices Test
  2. Reliability
    the correlation of individual’s scores on repeated (or sub-parts of ) intelligence tests.
  3. Types of Reliability
    • Test-Retest Reliability
    • Split-Half Reliability
  4. Validity
    correlation between test scores and some independent criteria of intelligence
  5. Test Bias
    The test does not make equally accurate predictions for all subgroups. It under (or over) estimates the performance of a one or more groups relative to other measures of intelligence such as grades in school.

    • eg Right handed people with a score of 100 do better in school
    • than Left handed people with a score of 100. Thus the test is
    • biased against Right handed people.
  6. psychometric approach
    • Charles Spearman
    • g factor: general reasoning ability
    • s factor: specific ability
    • 2-factor theory
  7. Fluid and crystalized intelligence
    • Raymond Cattell
    • Fluid intelligence: solving unfamiliar problems
    • crystalized intelligence: highly practiced skills
    • 2-factor theory
  8. Multiple intelligences
    • Howard Gardner 
    • 7 factor theory
  9. triarchic theory
    • Robert Sternberg  
    • Analytical: processing & manipulating information
    • Creative: new approaches to problems
    • Practical: application to real world situations 
    • 3-factor theory
  10. Nature vs. Nurture
    • 14 people said it is 70-80% nurture
    • 8 people said it is 60% nurture 
    • 11 people said it is 40% nurture
    • 3 people said 30% nurture

    *It is really around 70-80% nature (genetics)
  11. Intelligence Testing History
    • England (late 1800’s)
    •  Spencer’s Evolutionary Theory of Intelligence
    •  Galton's measurement of individual differences with acuity tests

    • France (early 1900’s)
    •  Binet-Simon

    • USA (early 1900 to present)
    •  Spearman, Catell, Terman, Stern, Wechler, Hernstein, Sternberg
  12. Francis Galton (1822-1911)
    • Measurement of individual differences & Intelligence
    •  
    • 1869 "Hereditary Genius" survey of individuals from prominent families. 

    • First twin studies: concluded that
    • intelligence is largely inherited
  13. Francis Galton (1822-1911)
    Eugenics: improvement of organisms by selective breeding.
  14. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) &
    Theodore Simon (1873-1961)
    • Cautioned about the use of intelligence tests as a single indicator
    • Stressed the role of health and motivation of the kids taking the test.
    • They viewed intelligence as multifaceted.
  15. Henry Herbert Goddard (1866-1957)
    • Stressed the inheritance view of intelligence.
    • 1912 testing for 'feeble mindedness' in immigrants at Ellis Island.
  16. Carl C. Brigham
    1920s appointed as Expert Eugenical Agent by the House Committee on Immigration & Naturalization

    • Immigrants from southern & eastern Europe would lower
    • the national intelligence.
  17. Correlation of monozygotic twins reared together and separate
    • together: 0.85
    • apart: .78
  18. Sibling vs. Dizygotic Correlation
    • sibling: 0.47
    • Dizygotic reared apart: 0.6
  19. L. Kamin 1974 and S. Gould 1981
    • Their position:
    • - Validity of interpretation of 'twin studies'
    • - Economics and educational opportunity 
    • - Potential cultural bias in intelligence tests 
    • - Genetic does not mean unchangeable
  20. What happened during Quiz #4?
    Girls ran around the stage with hats
  21. Definitions of Consciousness
    • Damasio (2003): It is the process where by the mind is imbued with a reference we call self and is said to know of its own existence and the existence of object around it. 
    • Kalat (2013): It is the subjective experience of perceiving oneself and other entities
  22. Mark test
    • test to show if subject recognizes itself
    • Gordan Gale
    • video shown of chimp with paint on head recognizing itself
  23. Repair – Restoration Theory
    The function of sleep is to allow you to recover from work – stresses of the day.
  24. What can sleep deprivation can produce
    Irritability, poor decision making, decreased attention, etc
  25. Sleep comparison compared to Drunk Driving
    20-25 hours of sleep deprivation is comparable to 0.10% BAC
  26. Class sleep hours numbers
    • 2 hrs: 5 people
    • 6 hrs: ~50 people
    • 8 hrs: 34 people
    • 10 hrs: 14
    • 12 hrs: 1
    • 16 hrs: 1
  27. Two extreme case studies of Sleep Deprivation
    • Dement: can handle sleep deprivation
    • Luce: severe impairment, cannot handle it
  28. Evolutionary - Energy Conservation View
    • Sleep functions to conserve energy during periods where the organism would be inefficient
    • Organisms sleep time some-what depends on how susceptible they are to being attacked in their sleep
  29. Which theory is right? Repair or Evolutionary?
    Both, they are complimentary
  30. The Measurement of Sleep & Sleep Physiology
    • EEG: electroencephalogram- on scalp of brain measures brain activity
    • EMG: electromyogram- muscle
    • EOG: electrooculogram- eyes during sleep
  31. REM
    • 90 min intervals between REM period
    • eyes move rapidly during REM 
    • last REM period is the longest
    • REM is correlated with Dreaming
  32. REM vs Awake
    • EEG & EOG high activity - awake like
    • EMG little activity - sleep like pattern
  33. What did people dream about?
    • Being chased
    • Super villain
    • Failing out
    • Mafia ran away with dad
    • sex
  34. Theories on Dreams
    • Psychoanalytic
    • Activation Synthesis
    • Neurocognitive
  35. Psychoanalytic (Freud Theory)
    Everything relates to inner desire to have sex

    • For boy: want to kill dad and have sex with mom
    • For girl: want to kill mom and have sex with dad
  36. Id, Ego and Superego
    • conscious, pre-conscious, unconscious
    • Id: Wants to have sex
    • Ego: Says not the right time
    • Superego: remember mom telling you sex is bad
  37. Manifest Content & Latent Content
    • Manifest Content: clear, directly what you want (sex)
    • Latent Content: Subliminal meaning, i.e. chased by person in dream, it is your dad because you had sex with your mom
  38. Activation Synthesis
    • Hobson & McCarley (1977): physiology of dreaming 
    • Pons spontaneous activity during REM sleep (REM) 
    • Activation of sensory systems in the Thalamus and of Occipital lobe
    • Falling & flying due to misinterpretation of input from the vestibular system
    • Paralyzed – unable to run away due to REM induced muscle paralysis
  39. Neurocognitive Theory
    • Cartwright: dreaming as problem solving of events and problems that have occurred during the day 
    • Dreaming is thinking that occurs under special
    • conditions of:
    • - Persistent cortical activity
    • - Greatly reduced external sensory input
    • - Loss of voluntary control of thinking
    • Most dreams are about commonplace concerns, anxieties, and desires arising from everyday situations
  40. Which Theory on dreaming is most accepted?
    Neurocognitive
  41. REM sleep disorder
    people act out their dreams
  42. Narcolepsy
    • Sudden attacks of extreme and ofter irresistible sleepiness during the day
    • i.e. video with dog
  43. Hypnosis
    • A condition of increased suggestibility that occurs in the context of a special hypnotist – subject relationship
    • things remembered in Hypnosis can be "false" memories
    • sometimes used in dental and surgical procedures to not feel pain

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