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What are the three main types of development?
- Physical - pertains to physical growth or declines.
- Cognitive - pertains to thinking.
- Socio-emotional - pertains to relationships & feelings.
Research Method- Cross-sectional design
- Investigates people of different ages at one point in time.
- Advantages - efficient
- Disadvantage - the people may differ in other ways. (*Cohort Effects- generation differences)
Research Method- Longitudinal study
- Investigates the same people and their changes as they age.
- Advantage - Can investigate age changes.
- Disadvantage - Time-consuming, mortality (aka attrition)
- Development prior to birth.
- This development is divided into three periods. Fetal Period, Embryonic Period, & the Fetal Period.
"Period of the zygote" - lasts about two weeks, from conception to implantation.
last from 2-8 weeks
Lasts from 8 weeks until birth.
Gametes & Chromosomes
- Gametes are sex cells (egg & sperm)
- 23 chromosomes come from the egg and 23 come from the sperm adding up to the full 46 chromosomes.
The cell that is formed from the joining of Sperm & an Egg.
The protective sac where the embryo floats.
The chord that connects the embryo & mother, how the embryo receives oxygen & nutrients.
Placenta & Plancental Barrier
- An organ that connects the baby's umbilical cord to the mother.
- The barrier separates and protects
- the mothers blood from the baby's blood.
the formation of new neurons.
the movement of newly formed neurons to different places in the brain, connecting with other neurons.
Harmful substances that can cause birth defects or other problems.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
- Alcohol is the number one cause of mental retardation. (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)
- Effects depend on factors such as... Dosage, Developmental Period, & Individuals'
Growth occurs toward the head earlier than toward the feet. (children use their arms before their legs ex.)
Physical growth occurs toward the center of the body before the extremities. (children learn to use their arms before they learn to use their fingers.)
- typical ages at which children reach milestones.
- Lifts head - 1 month
- Roll over - 3 months
- Sit up - 6 months etc.
Our brain doubles in weight within our first year, and continues to grow until we are 18.
When are most neurons formed?
Most of our neurons are formed before birth, but continue to grow until we are 18.
Why does the weight of our brains double within the first year of birth, and so on
The connections in our brain are still growing, (gray matter) increases during childhood, but decreases in adolescence (*synaptic pruning- eliminating unnecessary neural connections.)
How long does Myelin continue to grow?
Until we are in our 20's. (Myelin is the white substance around the axon.)
Testing Infants - Visual Cliff
A test of "depth perception" where infants are placed near what appears to be a drop off.
Testing Infants - Visual Preference Technique
Testing to determine which objects infants prefer to look at.
Period in life where many of the physical changes from childhood to adulthood take place.
What is the Hypothalamus' role in puberty?
The hypothalamus directs the pituitary to direct gonads (testes & ovaries) to release male and female hormones. (testosterone and estradiol)
Primary sexual characteristics
Changes in the reproductive organs (uterus development etc.)
Secondary sexual characteristics
Things that help with reproduction/ the process of getting older. (widening of hips, breast dev., deepening of voice, facial hair...)
What are the effects of the timing of puberty?
Early puberty - associated with problems (alcohol use, cigarettes, adolescent sexual behavior.) Favorable body image for boys, but early maturing girls less happy with appearance.
Adult Physical Development
'Early Adulthood' 20-40yrs old
- Peak of health, less problems physically, most common death factor=accidents. Believe you're indestructible
- 40-60yrs old
- Presbyopia (older sight), decrease in vision & other senses. Menopause in women (age 50). Lower sperm count, but doesn't end.
- 60+yrs old
- Impaired dark adaptation, hearing loss, chronic diseases.
- Cognitive stage of development
- different stages of language development include
- cooing - 2-3 months
- babbling - 6 months
- holophrastic speech - 12 months (singlewords)
- telegraphic speech - 18 months important words
- 3 years, complete sentences.
Applying a word to narrowly. (child calls the house dog a doggie, but the neighbors dog is not a 'doggie')
Applying a word too broadly (child will call many different animals by the one animal it knows how to say. A horse, cat, bird are all considered a 'doggie')
Applying rules of syntax too broadly. (adding "ed" to make things past tense)
What is the Learning Perspective?
created by Skinner- It suggests that language is learned through imitation and reinforcement, and so there's nothing special about learning language.
What is the Nativist Perspective?
view associated with linguist- Chomsky, that suggest that humans' ability to learn language is innate.
What is the Language acquisition device? (LAD)
Chomsky's term for a built-in capacity to master language that humans posses.
What is the Interactionist Perspective?
Suggest that both nature and nurture are important for language development.
What is Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development?
Jean Piaget's theory views children as scientists trying to learn about the world.
What are Schemas?
Knowledge frameworks that organize what we know. (They develop through assimilation and accommodation.)
What is Assimilation?
- Using existing schema to understand something new.
- (ex. sucking on a straw instead of a bottle)
What is Accommodation?
- Changing and existing schema in light of something new that doesn't fit the current schema.
- (ex. tipping the cup)
Describe the sensorimotor stage.
- The first stage in Piaget's model, in which children begin to integrate motor behaviors with sensory experiences. Up until age 2.
- (learning that squeezing the yellow duck produces a squeaky sound.)
What is object permanence?
Understanding that objects exist even when they cannot be seen.
What is the preoperational stage?
The second stage in Piaget's model, in which children learn to use symbols and begin to develop a theory of mind. *use objects to represent other objects.
(ex. kids learn how to pretend, 'air guitar')
What is the three mountains task?
a test used on children in which they usually show that they are egocentric or in the 'preoperational' stage. They pick the option that they only see from their perspective.
What is a False belief task?
Investigates ego-centrism. They think that if they know something, that everyone else should know about this something too. (the boxes and the hidden ball.)
What is the Concrete Operational stage?
The third stage in Piaget's model, in which children have mastered many cognitive skills. But these children tend to have difficulty with abstract concepts, reasoning, and hypothetical possibilities.
What is the Formal Operational stage?
The fourth stage in Piaget's model, which adolescents begin to be able to think about abstract ideas and hypothetical possibilities.
What is Adolescent Egocentrism?
Tendency for adolescents to be very interested in themselves, their appearance, their activities, and to think that others share this interest.
What is the imaginary audience?
An aspect of adolescent egocentrism. The view that one is in the spotlight and everyone else is the audience.
What is the Personal Fable?
Aspect of adolescent egocentrism, again. It is the belief that one is unique and special, perhaps so different that no one else can understand one's thoughts and feelings.
What is Kohlberg's model of Moral development?
Kohlberg suggests that moral reasoning develops through a series of stages. (ex. studied Heinz, wife dying of cancer, stole medicine.)
Preconventional level of Moral development?
1st level in which decisions are based on rewards and punishment the person might receive.
Conventional level of Moral development?
2nd level in which reasoning is based on societies 'norms.'
Postconventional level of Moral development?
3rd level in which decisions are based on abstract moral principles. (justice, care for others, SUPERHEROES LIKE BATMAN! <3)