pharm drugs 1

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pharm drugs 1
2013-11-01 13:30:22
pharm drugs

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  1. cromolyn
    a release inhibitor that reduces degranulation of mast cellsit reduces bronchospasm
  2. terfenadine
    type of drug
    • H1 receptor antagonist
    • antiallergic, lower sedation
  3. cyclizine
    type of drug
    • H1 receptor antagonist
    • prevents motion sickness, slight sedetion
  4. cimetidine
    type of drug
    • H2 receptor antagonist
    • reduce gastric secretion but inhibits cytochrome P450 and binds to androgen receptors
  5. nizatidine
    type of drug
    • H2 receptor antagonist
    • reduce gastric secretion, no side effects
  6. penicillins
    what group?
    does what?
    • beta-lactam
    • bind to specific cell membrane protein (penicillin binding protein - PBP) responsible for synth of bacterial cell wall, INHIBITING CELL WALL SYNTH
  7. cephalosporins
    what group?
    does what? 
    used when?
    • beta-lactam (divided in to 1st, 2nd, 3rd generation)
    • inhibit bacterial wall growth
    • used if penicillin is ineffective
  8. bacitracin
    what type of antibiotic?
    does what?
    • polypeptide antiobiotics
    • inhibits incorporation of amino acids into bacterial cell wall
  9. aminoglycosides
    2 examples?
    does what?
    effective against what?
    • streptomycin, gentomycin
    • inhibit bacterial protein synth
    • many aerobic gram neg (e-coli) and some gram pos (staph)
  10. streptomycin and gentamycin are examples of what?
    do what?
    • aminoglycosides
    • inhibit bacterial protein synth
  11. erythromycins
    do what?
    active against what?
    especially useful for what pt pop?
    • inhibit formation of peptide bonds btwn amino acids ... inhibiting bacterial protein synth
    • many gram-pos and some neg bacteria
    • pts who are allergic to penicillin
  12. tetracyclines
    active against what?
    does what?
    used to treat infections relating to _ _ _
    • many gram pos and neg bacteria
    • inhibit bacterial protein synth
    • Chlamydia, Rickettsia, spirochete
  13. chloramphonicol
    is the synthetic option similar to _?
    does what?
    • erythromycin
    • inhibit formation of peptide bonds btwn amino acids (inhibiting bacterial protein synth)
  14. aminosalicylic acid
    does what
    used as an adjuct to the primary antitubercular agents _ and _
    • inhibits folic acid synth (by inhibiting bacterial DNA/RNA synth)
    • izoniazid & riampin
  15. metronidazole
    does what? 
    effective against what?
    • inhibits bacterial DNA/RNA synth and function
    • most anaerobic bacteria and certain protozoa
  16. sulfonamides
    do what?
    used for treating what?
    • inhibit bacterial DNA/RNA synth and function
    • urinary tract infections
    • (god against a wide variety of gram neg and pos bacteria)
  17. gama globulins
    do what?
    block penetration of measles virus (and inhibit adsorption)
  18. ribavirin 
    does what?
    treats what?
    • inhibits intracellular synth for viruses
    • active against several RNA and DNA viruses
    • used for treating viral pneumonia in infants and kids
  19. acyclovir
    does what?
    used against what?
    • inhibits intracellular synth of viruses
    • herpes-virus infections
  20. zidovudine
    does what (generally)?
    • inhibits intracellular synth of viruses
    • inhibits HIV replication in AIDS pts
  21. 3 drugs that inhibit intracellular synth of viruses
    • ribavirin
    • acyclovir
    • zidovudine
  22. rifampin
    inhibit assembly and release of viruses, but has not been used in humans
  23. interferons
    general def?
    actions of 1st and 2nd types?
    • a group of proteins that help normal cells resist infection from some viruses
    • alpha beta gama
    • antiviral activity and treatment of neoplastic diseases (leukemias, lymphomas)
  24. amphotericin B
    administered how?
    treats what?
    • antifungal
    • slow intravenous infusions
    • systemic infections and meningitis caused by Candida Albicans
  25. nystatin
    primary use? (though has a wide spectrum of activity against various fungi)
    • antifungal
    • GI fungal infections
  26. clotrimazole
    administered how?
    • antifungal
    • Candida infections or athlete's foot
    • topically (can't be given systemically bc of toxicity)
  27. chloroquine
    main job?
    also fights what?
    • anti-protozoal
    • prevents and treats malaria
    • RA and systemic lupus erithematosus
  28. helmints
    • parasitic worms
    • most common form of disease on the globe
  29. mebendazole
    fights what?
    • anti-helmint
    • single oral dose use against nematodes
  30. niclosamide
    fights what?
    • anti-helmint
    • tapeworms
  31. acetylsalicylic acid -- aka __
    exerts its therapeutic effects by inhibiting __
    • aspirin
    • synth of endogenous lipid-like compounds - eicosanoides (prostaglandines, thromboxanes, leukotriens) produced by every type of cell except RBCs
  32. eicosanoides (they're synth is inhbitied by acetylsalicylic acid/aspirin) do what? 4
    • increase inflammation
    • increase sensitivity of pain receptors
    • fever
    • cause thrombus formation by increasing platelet aggregation and blood clot formation
  33. 3 types of drugs to treat RA
    • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (1st line of defense)
    • corticosteroides (such as prednisolone)
    • disease-modifying drugs (antimalaric drugs, gold -- they inhibit monocytes and T and B lymphocytes)
  34. colchicine
    treats what?
    • gout
    • anti-inflamm effect 2/2 inhibition of leukocyte migration and phagocytosis
  35. probenecid
    treats what?
    • gout
    • decreases body urate pool

    uricosuric agent used to decrease body urate pool by decreasing reapsorption in proximal tubule
  36. gout description, and 2 drug names
    • inflam disease
    • char. by episodes of acute arthritis 2/2 deposits of uric acid crystals (hyperuricemia) in joints
    • colchicine
    • probenecid
  37. hemostasis
    what is it?
    4 mechanisms to do this?
    • prevention of blood loss
    • 1. vascular spasm / constriction
    • 2. formation of a platelet plug
    • 3. blood clot
    • 4. organization or lysis of blood clots
  38. thrombomodulin
    • an important factor in preventing clotting
    • it's an antiogagulant substance in the blood
  39. antithrombin III
    • an important factor in preventing clotting
    • inactivates thrombin
  40. heparin
    important in doing what?
    produced by what?
     does what?
    • preventing clotting
    • mast cells
    • increases effectiveness of antithrombin III
  41. prothrombin activator
    • helps with hemostasis by formation of blood clots
    • causes conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
  42. what does thrombin do?
    causes polymerization of fibrinogen into fibrin fibers --> fibring mesh enmeshing platelets and blood cells to form the clot (vicious circle)
  43. anticoagulants
    name 2
    • control the function and synth of clotting factors
    • usually for clot formation in venous system to prevent pulmonary embolism

    • heparin
    • warfarin
  44. heparin
    type of drug?
    2 specific uses
    • anticoagulant
    • parenterally administered
    • treats venous thrombosis
    • helps activity of antithrombin III
  45. warfarin
    type of drug?
    2 specific uses
    • anticoagulant
    • oral drug
    • alters vitamin K metabolism
    • impairs synth of some clotting factors
  46. antithrombic drugs 
    name 2
    • inhibit platelet function, prevent abnormal platelet aggregation in arteries / arterial clots
    • aspirin, dipyridamole
  47. aspirin
    type of drug?
    • antithrombic
    • suppresses platelet aggregation by inhibiting synth of prostaglandins and thromboxanes (A2)
    • used in prevention of myocardial and cerebral infarction, mostly in men
  48. dipyridamole
    type of drug?
    • antithrombotic
    • inhibit platelet aggregation
  49. thrombolytic drugs
    name 2
    • facilitate destruction of blood clots
    • (do this by converting plasminogen to plasmin which breaks down fibrin clots)
    • streptokinase
    • urokinase
  50. common clotting deficiencies are seen in what 2 conditions?
    • hemophilia
    • deficiencies of vitamin K
  51. streptokinase
    what kind of drug?
  52. urokinase
    what kind of drug?
  53. hemophilia
    • hereditary
    • caused by deficiency of clotting factor VIII (hemophelia A) or IX (hemophelia B)
  54. vitamin K deficiency causes clotting deficiency why?
    treated how?
    • vit K is needed for hepatic synth of clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X
    • oral or parenteral admin of the exogenous vitamin
  55. alkylating agents
    what kind of drug?
    works how?
    • anticancer
    • inhibits binding within DNA molecules and prevents DNA function and replication
  56. antimetabolites
    type of drug?
    works how?
    • anticancer
    • impair biosynth of genetic material -- (by incorporating into the genetic material or by occupying enzymes that synth components of genetic material)
  57. antibiotics as anticancer drugs work how?
    • act directly on DNA
    • it's a special group of toxic drugs special for cancer
  58. interferons as cancer drugs work how?
    peptides used for treatment of leukemias, lymphomas, sarcomas
  59. 3 drugs that inhibit bacterial cell wall synth and function
    • penicilins
    • cephalosporins
    • bacitracin
  60. 4 drugst that inhibit bacterial protein synth
    • aminoglycosides
    • erythromycins
    • tetracyclines
    • chloramphenicol
  61. 3 drugs that inhibtit bacterial DNA/RNA synth and function
    • aminosalicylic acid
    • metronidazole
    • sulfonamides