PE exam revision
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name and describe the three av02 and mv02 chronic adaptations
- Oxidative enzymes -Increase - Increase in food fuels where the breakdown of fuels needs to speed down. Glycogen is now preserved for longer periods of time during the exercise session.
- Mitochondria - Increase - More oxygen sites are available around the body to produce ATP for increased oxygen blood flow. Greater capacity for aerobic respiration.
- Myoglobin - Increase - As there are more oxygen sites available.
what is psychological refractory period
– (delayedresponse time) Only process one piece of information at a time, if the opponentresponds to the first stimuli they must first process it and then respond tothat cue before they can process the second stimuli. Slowing down theirresponse time.
what is selective attention?
the atheltes can block out irrelevant cues that my be presented to them (fake) and only focus and act on the relevant cues. decrease processing time and improve response time.
teosterone and oestrogen differences (eg. 100m sprint)
- · - Males have increased testosterone in their body, leading to increased protein synthesis and bone density (increased hypertrophy) leading to a greater force·
- - Greater size means larger legs for sprinting ·
- - Femur/pelvis angle difference may result in males running action is more efficient.
- - Better body composition which means lower body fat % which means less dead weight that does not contribute to power in the run
What is active recovery
- active recovery involves exercising at low intensities helping the body to recover quickly from competition or high intensity events.
- the aim of recovery is to return the body systems to a resting state and to replenish CP stores, clear lactic acid and restore heamoglobin and myoglobin stores.
what are 3 muscular chronic responses (adaptations
- increase number and size of mitochondria - increasing the amount of oxygen that is being extracted and consumed in the muscle increasing v02 max in reducing reliance upon the lactic system
- increase oxidation of glucose and fats - increase in fuel supply to muscle, minimises the risk of glycogen depeletion or hitting the wall
- increase in hypertrophy of muscle fibres - increase the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle can increase the strength hence power and speed.
signal detection depends on... (5)
- intensity (strength) of the cue
- speed of the cue
- noise level
- functioning of sensory organs
- arousal level
how can mental performance lead to improved performance
the athlete visualises themself perfectly executing the skill, strengthening neural pathways and reinforcing correct techniques. can also look for increased performance through confidence and belief that they can improve the skill properly through self confidence.
name 3 cardiovascular chronic adaptations
- decreased heart rate - the heart doesnt need to pump as much blood per beat
- increased stroke volume - more oxygenated blood ca be pumped through the heart as the left ventricle is larger (muscular)
- sub max - same, max increased cardiac output (HR X SV) more blood is pumped out per beat
- increased blood volume - more blood flow o the working muscles, increased oxygen flow
- decreased blood pressure - arteries arent as blocked
- increased av02 difference - more oxygen is needed to breakdown fats and glycogen more efficient removal of waste products.
name 3 respiratory chronic adaptations
- increased tidal volume - more oxygen is extracted per breath
- decreased respiratory rate - the heart can pump out the same amount of blood in fewer beats
- increase minute ventilation - more oxygen exhaled per breath
- increased lung diffusion - more oxygen is transferred per breath leading to the alveoli
- increased v02 max - longer to reach a steady state where oxygen demands reach oxygen requirements.
name 3 muscular chronic adaptations
- increase oxidative enzymes - increase in food fuels where the breakdown of food fuels are needed to speed up. glycogen is preserved for longer periods of exercise and to not reach 'hitting the wall'
- increase mitochondria - more oxygen sites are available to produce ATP-CP for increased oxygen flow. greater capacity for aerobic respiration.
- increased myolglobin - more oxygen sites avaliable.
- increased speed of contractions - increased stores of fast twitch fibres that make the athlete faster
name 3 anaerobic chronic adaptions
- increased glycogen stores - meaning more energy
- increased ATP - to breakdown and increased energy
- increased heart size - contains a more powerful heart beat leading to a quicker removal of waste products
- increased speed of contractions - making the athlete faster
explain why training at altitude is not an advantage for an athlete competing at sea level
- at altitude the reduced air pressure means there is less oxygen per volume of air, as there is a greater reliance on anaerobic energy systems
- train low, live high
what affect does dehydration have upon the heart rate
reduced blood volume as a result of dehydration from sweating and the constriction of the surface in blood flow meaning less blood is sent to the cooling system.
what is oxygen deficit
the difference between oxygen required for a given task and the oxygen actually consumed by the body
explain one way in which mental practice can improve performance
- A motivational tool increasing self confidence
- and the willingness to try harder
- Skill refinement as the brain sends messages to
- the muscles via the neural pathway
- Develop a game plan or response to any possible
- situation that may occur during a game
- And relaxation methods may reduce stress or
- anxiety by improving performance
what is muscular hypertrophy
increase in the cross-sectional area of the muscle increasing strength.
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