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What is the purpose of the Bulk Electric System in BC?
To transfer power from large remote generating stations to the load centers in the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island.
What are the primary voltages of the Bulk Electric System in BC?
What two main river systems are home to hydro-electric generation facilities that make up 60% of BC Hydro’s generation portfolio?
Where is the bulk of the Load in BC Hydro’s system?
- Lower Mainland
- Vancouver Island
What is the responsibility of the Generation Coordinator?
- Overall operation of the generation portfolio to meet reliability requirements
- Focus on the "Big 7" generating stations
- operations of the Automatic Generation Control (AGC)
What is the responsibility of the Plant Operator?
Controlling and operating the majority of generating stations to support the GC.
What is PSOSE short for? What is the responsibility of PSOSE?
- Power Supply Operations and Support Engineers
- PSOSE is responsible for BC Hydro generation from an economics point of view.
Why is the BES divided up into Sectors? What are the Sectors and what geographic area do they encompass?
- The BES is divided into three sectors to make control and operation more manageable by RTO.
- Grid 1 – Northern, Central and Southern Interior
- Grid 2 – Vancouver Island, North Shore, and Sunshine Coast
- Grid 3 – Lower Mainland and Fraser Valley
How many regions is the BC Hydro system divided up into with regards to generating facilities?
- Peace Region
- Columbia Region
- Lower Mainland
- Vancouver Island
On what two basins is 80% of the BC Hydro generation portfolio served from?
Peace and Columbia River basins
What is an IPP?
- Independent power Producer
- Private investors that have developed and interconnected generation to serve provincial load.
At what two basis voltage levels are IPPs interconnected into the provincial grid?
- Distribution voltage level
- Transmission voltage level
Under what type of agreement to IPPs sell the energy they produce back to BC Hydro?
Electricity Purchanse Agreements (EPAs)
Approximately how much of BC Hydro’s generation portfolio is made up of IPPs?
3000MW of peak capacity
What is the Plant Operator responsible for? Ensure your answer discusses both Operating Responsibility and Operating Authority.
- The PO is responsible for 7x24 monitoring and control (starting, stopping, and load changes) of BCH generating facilities with the exception of GMS and PCN.
- The Plant Desk has Operating Responsibility for:
- · All water conveyance equipment
- · All generation equipment that is covered by WPP safety practices in BCH plants with a generating capacity less than 100MW.
- · All dispatchable IPPs
- Operating Responsibility is always assigned field staff by the Plant Desk for all generation equipment. (Exception: GMS and PCN which work directly with the GC)
- There is no Operating Authority assigned to the Plant Desk.
What is the Generation Coordinator responsible for? Ensure your answer discusses both Operating Responsibility and Operating Authority.
- The GC is responsible for the 7x24 monitoring and control of the BC Balancing Authority, specifically Automatic Generation Control.
- The GC Desk is assigned Operating Responsibility for:
- · All generation equipment that is covered by WPP safety practices in BCH plants with a generating capacity equal to or greater than 100MW.
- · Any IPP plant with a generating capacity equal to or greater than 100MW in the BCH Balancing Authority area.
- Operating Responsibility is always assigned field staff .
- There is no Operating Authority assigned to the Generation Coordinator.
What is the PSOSE responsible for?
PSOSE develops an operational plan for the next hour looking out one year. The operations plan is the best way to run generation, ensuring reliability, maximizing revenue, and adhering to environmental requirements.
Briefly, and in your own terms, discuss the relationship between PSOSE and Grid Operations?
- PSOSE sets base points for the “big seven” Type A power plants.
- Type B and C plants are dispatched by PSOSE directly through DCM. Type D plants are logged in DCM after the fact.
- PSOSE establishes the operation of power plants from an economic point of view on an hour by hour basis in an effort to meet load +/- import/export.
- Grid Operation follows these basepoints as long as reliability can be maintained and follows instructions for Type B and C plants received through DCM. Grid Operations notifies PSOSE of outages to transmission equipment that affect how generating stations can be run usings Reliability Must Runs (RMRs).
What is does the term “head” mean?
Head is the difference in height between the height of the water in the reservoir (top) and tailrace (bottom) for a dam.
What are the two principal types of dam construction?
- Earth-fill dam
- Concrete dam
T or F – a powerhouse must be built integral to a dam.
Describe a storage type dam?
- Typically has penstock well below surface which allows reservoir levels to fluctuate without power production being affected.
- Typically have a large head.
Describe a run-of-the-river type dam?
Allows for little to no water storage so output relies on seasonal river flow or output of upstream plant. Dam may not be able to run during certain times of the year.
Describe a diversion type dam?
Diversion dams are used to change the course of a river or stream, usually forcing it to join the water behind a Run-of-the-River or Storage dam. Example: Puntledge.
What is a reservoir?
The water stored behind a dam.
What is a tailrace?
The area downstream where the water exits.
What is does the term Power Release Facility mean?
Power Release Facilities include all the equipment involved in the power generation aspect of a hydro-electric generator.
What is does the term Non-Power Release Facility mean?
Non-Power Release Facilities include all the equipment involved in moving water through/past the dam that are not power generation related.
What is an Intake Gate? Where is it typically installed?
- Intake Gate: where water from the reservoir enters the penstock.
- Located at the top end of the penstock.
What is an Intake Maintenance Gate? Where is it typically installed?
- Intake Maintenance Gate: this device is used when the unit is under maintenance and the penstock must be dry.
- Located upstream of the intake gate.
What is a Trashrack? Where is it typically installed?
- Trash Rack: Ensures large debris do not enter the penstock.
- Located at the open end of the intake structure in the reservoir forebay.
What is a Penstock? Where is it typically installed?
Penstock: Used to deliver water from the intake structure to the scroll case of the turbine.
What is a Surge Tower? Where is it typically installed?
- Surge Tower: Ensures the penstock is not affected by water hammering or surging.
- Open to atmosphere at the top of the penstock and above the height of the reservoir.
What is a Scroll Case? Where is it typically installed?
- Scroll Case: ensures equal pressure of water on all portions of the turbine runner.
- Snail-looking structure at the bottom of the penstock.
What is a Wicket Gate? Where is it typically installed?
- Wicket Gates: Control the flow of water into the turbine.
- Associated with turbine end of the unit.
What is a Turbine? Where is it typically installed?
Turbine: The “runner” that spins as water flows through it converting kinetic energy into mechanical energy.
What is a Draft Tube? Where is it typically installed?
Draft Tube: where the water exits the bottom of the turbine and returns to the river.
What is a Draft Tube Mtce Gate? Where is it typically installed?
Draft Tube Maintenance Gate: downstream of the runner, this device is used when the draft tube or runner is under maintenance and the draft tube must be dry.
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