Apologia GS Module 5

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Apologia GS Module 5
2013-10-31 14:44:54
general science

Study guide for module 5
Show Answers:

  1. Define life science
    A term that encompasses all scientific pursuits related to living organisims
  2. Define archaeology
    The study of past human life as revealed by preserved relics
  3. Define artifact
    Objects made by humans such as tools, weapons, containers, etc.
  4. Define geology
    The study of earth's history as revealed in the rocks that make up the earth
  5. Define paleontology
    The study of life's history as revealed in the preserved remains of once living plants and animals
  6. Define Aristotle's dictum
    The benefit of the doubt is to be given to the document itself, not assigned by the critic to himself
  7. Define known age
    The age of an artifact as determined by a date printed on it or a reference to the artifact in a work of history.
  8. Define dendrochronology
    The process of counting tree rings to determine the age of a tree
  9. Define radiometric dating
    Using a radioactive process to determine the age of an item.
  10. Define absolute age
    The calculated age of an artifact when a specific dating method is used to determine when the artifact was made.
  11. Define the principal of superposition
    When artifacts are found in rock or earth that is layered, the deeper layers hold the older artifacts.
  12. If you wanted to learn about the history of life other than human life, would you use archaeology or paleontology?
    You would use paleontology, because archaeology concentrates on human life.
  13. Name the the three tests used to evaluate documents that claim to be historical.
    The internal test, the external test, and the bibliographic test.
  14. Give a brief description of each of the tests used to evaluate documents that claim to be historical.
    The internal test makes sure that the document does not contradict itself.  The external test makes certain that he document does not contradict other known historical or archaeological facts. The bibliographic test makes certain that the document we have today is essentially the same as the original.
  15. In what test is Aristotle's dictum used? Why must we use it?
    Aristotle's dictum is used in the internal test.  We must use it because what seems to be a contradiction in a document might not be a contradiction.  It might just be our inability to understand the language in which the document was written.
  16. There are two reasons to believe that the copy of an ancient document might not be the same as the original.  One is that the person making the copy might have made some unintentional mistakes. What is the other reason?
    Often those who are making the copy or those who are ordering the copy to be made will order changes to be made as well.  Kings have done this in a effort to make themselves or their ancestors look better in history.  Religious groups have been known to do this to make themselves look more important or to make their view look "right".
  17. What two things help a document pass the bibliographic test?
    First, there should be a small time period between when the original was written and when the first available copy was made.  This reduces the chance for changes being made and reduces the number of errors that would be committed during the copy process.  Second, there must me a lot of different copies from a lot of different sources.  If all of the copies agree with one another, then we know that a single copier did not make drastic changes.
  18. Does the Bible contain any contradictions that make it fail the internal test?
    No.  The Bible passes the internal test as well as any document of its time.
  19. Does the Bible have any difficult passages that might seem like contradictions?
    Yes. Because of the difficulty of translating ancient languages, there are some difficult passages.  All documents of history have such passages, however.
  20. Why are the two accounts given in Acts 9:7 and Acts 22:9 not contradictory?
    This is a translation problem.  The verb "hear" used in Acts 9:7 simply means that the men heard sounds.  The verb "hear" used in Acts 22:9 requires that the hearer must actually understand intelligible language.  These verses are actually complementary, then.  The first tells us that the men heard SOUNDS, but the second tells us that the men could not understand those sounds.
  21. Why are two genealogies of Christ given in Luke 3 and Matthew 1 not contradictory?
    One of the genealogies traces Mary's line while the other traces Joseph's line.
  22. Why can we say that the Bible passes the external test better than any other document of its time?
    Because no other work has had so much archaeological evidence compared to it.  The Bible has been tested by archaeology ore than any other documents of history, and it passes with flying colors!
  23. Suppose a document passes the internal and bibliographic tests but some of the conclusions of archaeologists go against what the documents says. If the document has some other external support (other historical documents and some archaeological evidence), why should we not automatically say that it fails the external test?
    Sometimes, it turns out that archaeology is wrong, so you cannot discount the validity of a document if archaeology does not fully agree with it.  Remember, several archaeologists thought that the Bible was wrong on several occasions.  It turns out that it was the archaeologists who were wrong, not the Bible!
  24. Why can we say tht the New Testament passes the bibliographic test better than any other document of its time?
    The New Testament has significantly shorter time spans between original and copy as compared to any other work of the same time period.  It also has thousands more supporting documents than any other document of its time.
  25. Does the Old Testament pass the bibliographic test?
    Yes, the Old Testament passes the bibliographic test just as well as any other document of its time.
  26. The age of an ancient settlement is determined by using dendrochronology on some firewood that had been chopped down but never used by inhabitants.  Does the settlement have a known age or an absolute age?
    The age is absolute, because a dating method was used to determine it.
  27. A coffin of a great kin is discovered.  The date of the king's death is recorded in a document of history.  Does the coffin have a known age or an absolute age?
    The coffin has a know age, because it is referenced in a document of history.
  28. If an archaeologist gives an absolute age for an artifact, does that mean we know for certain how old the artifact is?
    No. Absolute does not meat certain.  Even the most accurate dating method has error in it, and some dating methods can be very unreliable.
  29. Why does an archaeologist use master tree ring patterns?
    Master tree ring patterns help the archeologist determine the age of logs found in ruins.  Master tree ring patterns are cataloged for each region of the world, and they correspond to weather patterns that have already been dated.  If an archaeologist finds a master tree ring pattern on a log, he or she knows when that tree ring pattern was formed and can use that to determine the age of the log.
  30. What is the underlying assumption of the Principal of Superposition?
    The Principle of Superposition assumes that in rock or soil that is layered, the layers were formed one at a time.  This is not necessarily true.
  31. Suppose an archaeologist uses dendrochronology to determine that a city was built in 2500 B.C.  Several years later, another archaeologist is digging deeper under the site of the city and, in a lower layer of rock, he finds the remains of another city. Unfortunately, there is nothing that he can use for any dating technique.  He can still conclude something about the age of the city. Assuming that the Principal of Superposition is true in this situation, what can he conclude?
    He can conclude that the city he found was built before 2500 B.C. Assuming the Principle of Superposition is true, the lower layers of rock are older than the upper layers. Since he found this city in a lower layer of rock, it must be older than the city that was discovered in the upper layer of rock.
  32. Besides being discussed in the most accurate historical document of its time, what other historical evidence exists which indicates that Noah's Flood actually did occur?
    There are many seemingly unrelated cultures that all a have a worldwide flood tale. If the flood did not really occur, then you have to assume that they all made up the tale independently, because many of the cultures had no contact with one another until well after the tales were written down.