WFC111 - Bird World Orders

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Author:
lndsyfree
ID:
244222
Filename:
WFC111 - Bird World Orders
Updated:
2013-11-21 18:02:46
Tags:
wfcb wfc ornithology birds
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Description:
40 bird orders to know w/ important features for WFC111 F13
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  1. STRUTHIONIFORMES
    • Ex. Ostrich
    • Largest living bird: 2.5 m (8') tall. Flightless. Bill flattened.
    • 2 toes per foot.
    • thighs & most of neck bare, remiges & rectrices ornamental.
    • Male plumage black & white, female's brown. Lack keel

    Location: Africa
  2. Rheiformes
    • Ex. Rheas
    • huge (1.5 m tall)
    • Flightless.
    • Bill-flattened.
    • 3 toes per foot.
    • Neck and thighs feathered.
    • lack rectrices but remiges present. Wings short & inconspicuous. Plumage soft & filmy, grayis
    • plumage soft & filmy, grayish. Lack keel.

    Location: South America
  3. Tinamiformes
    • Ex. Tinamous
    • Medium to large fowl-like birds with short wings, very short tails. Bills chicken-like, but mandibles tripartite (have 3 bones), nostrils covered with cere.
    • Halux elevated or absent.
    • Plumage brownish with cryptic patterns.
    • Reduced keel.

    Location: South America
  4. Casuariiformes
    • Ex. emu & cassowaries
    • huge (1.5-1.8 m tall)
    • Flightless.
    • Bill flattened or laterally compressed.
    • [Some species have casque on head]
    • 3 toes
    • Wings reduced, remiges are absent or only a few quills
    • Rectrices absent
    • plumage coarse (presenting a mop-like appearance), black or brown.
    • Lack keel.

    Location: Austalo-papuan region
  5. APTERYGIFORMES
    • Ex. kiwis
    • Large.
    • Flightless
    • nostrils at tip of long, flexible decurved bill
    • Halux elevated
    • Wings greatly reduced (not usually apparent)
    • plumage hair-like
    • lack tail
    • Brown or grayish
    • Lack keel

    Location: New Zealand
  6. Anseriformes
    • Ex. waterfowl & screamers
    • Location: Worldwide

    • Medium to very large
    • Relatively long-necked, short-legged waterbirds [or large fowl-like birds - Screamers]
    • (Mergansers) bill broad, flattened, lamellate or slender, serrate with nail at tip
    • feet palmate, legs short
    • Wings usually narrow, pointed [or broad, rounded, with 2 spurs at bend]
    • Variable in color.

    Location: Worldwide
  7. Galliformes
    • Ex. Gallinaceous birds
    • Location: Worldwide

    • Medium to very large.
    • Fowl-like, terrestrial birds.
    • Bill short, stout; culmen decurved & overlaps lower mandible.
    • Legs, feet, claws, strong.
    • Hallux present.
    • Wings short, rounded.
    • Often cryptically colored, sometimes very bright or intricately patterned
  8. Phoenicopteriformes
    • Ex. flamingoes
    • Location: tropical areas

    • Very large.
    • Extremely long-legged & long-necked.
    • Bill thick, bent downwards, & lamellate
    • Feet palmate.
    • Wings large, tail short.
    • Mostly pink
  9. Podicipediformes
    • Ex. grebes
    • Location: worldwide

    • Med to large
    • Waterbirds with feet set well back on body; necks slender.
    • Bill pointed; lores bare
    • Feet lobate (all 4 toes), tarsi scutellate & laterally conpressed.
    • Claws flattened, nail-like.
    • Wings short, pointed.
    • Plumage dense, hairlike; rectrices rudimentary.
    • Predominantly brown.
  10. Phaethontiformes
    • Ex. tropicbirds
    • Location: tropical areas

    • Medium watbirds.
    • Bill moderately to very long, pointed or hooked
    • feet totipalmate
    • Legs short
    • Wings large.
    • Plumage mostly black & white, some brown; bare areas colorful
  11. Mesitornithoformes
    • Ex. mesites
    • Location: Madagascar

    • Small terrestrial birds.
    • Weak fliers, typically found on ground or in low scrub.
    • All three species are endemic to Madagascar and omnivorous
  12. Pteroclidoformes
    • Ex. sandgrouse
    • Location: Southern Eurasia & Africa

    • Med sized.
    • Short-legged, short-necked, somewhat fowl-like birds.
    • Bill short, conical, chicken-like, with decurved culmen.
    • Tarsi short, feathered
    • Hallux absent or elevated.
    • Wings & tail long & pointed
    • Cryptically colored in browns & grays.
  13. Eurypigiformes
    • Ex. sunbittern & kagu
    • Location: New Caledonia, Central & South America

    • Med. sized.
    • Two distinctive species that both have intricately-pattered wings with contrasting bands; the wings are held stiffly outward in displays, but birds are otherwise cryptic.
    • Produce power-down.
  14. Columbiformes
    • Ex. pigeons & doves
    • Location: worldwide

    • Med. sized.
    • Compact, with large breast, short neck, & small head
    • Bill fairly short, slender, swollen at tip; fleshy cere.
    • Legs short; halux incumbent or slightly elevated. Plumage dense, loose; colors variable, but soft pastel grays, greens, browns predominate.
  15. Caprimulgiformes
    • Ex. nightjars & allies
    • Location: nearly worldwide

    • Nocturnal birds with relatively large head, short neck & legs.
    • Bill short, flattened, hooked with a wide gape; usually surrounded by rictal bristles
    • Feet small, weak.
    • Wings long, pointed or rounded.
    • Plumage soft, mottled in cryptic browns & grays
  16. Apodiformes
    • Ex. swifts and hummingbirds
    • Location: worldwide

    • Tiny to small.
    • Highly aerial, with long wings, tiny feet.
    • Bill varies: short, flattened, with broad gape (swifts); or very long & slender, straight, straight or decurved (hummingbirds)
    • Feet small, weak.
    • Wing sickle-shaped: humeri short, digits & primaries long (cannot fold in hummingbirds)
    • Color either drab grays & browns (swifts) or colorful, iridescent (hummingbirds).
  17. Opisthocomiformes
    • Ex. hoatzin
    • Location: South America

    • Large.
    • Pheasant-sized, but much slimmer.
    • Bill chicken-like
    • Long-tailed, long-necked and has a small head; unfeathered blue face with red eyes, and its head is topped by spiky crest.
    • Chick has two claws on each budding wing which help it grip branches and clamber about awkwardly.
    • Only bird ruminant (enlarged cervical crop to ferment and digest leaves)
  18. Otidoformes
    • Ex. bustards
    • Location: Old World

    • Med. to large, terrestrial omnivores.
    • Often have substantial bills, long legs and a cursorial, ground-nesting lifestyle.
    • Sexually dimorphic, with large males often performing elaborate displays.
  19. Cuculiformes
    • Ex. cuckoos
    • Location: Worldwide

    • Small to large.
    • Slender birds.
    • Bill moderately long, decurved, sometimes laterally compressed [or chicken-like].
    • Feet zygodactyl
    • Wings often pointed [or rounded]; tail long & graduated.
    • Plumage brown, gray black, or bright metallic greens, often with barring or streaking.
  20. Gruiformes
    • Ex. Cranes, rails, & allies
    • Location: worldwide

    • Small to very large.
    • Structurally diverse
    • Bill usually longer than head, slender & acute, or laterally compressed [or hooked].
    • Hallux incumbent or elevated [or absent].
    • Toes unwebbed, semipalmate, or iobate.
    • Wings generally rounded.
  21. Musophagiformes
    • Ex. turacos
    • Location: Africa

    • Large. 
    • Arboreal, with longish neck, smallish head.
    • Bill decurved, chicken-like, but serrate; but sometimes expended to frontal shield.
    • Feet zygodactyl (4th toe reversible)
    • Wings rounded, tail long.
    • Plumage soft; crested head.
    • Either gray or white, blue & yellow, or green or purple with bright red on head & in wings.
  22. Gaviiformes
    • Ex. loons
    • Location: Holartic

    • Large.
    • Waterbirds with feet set well back on body; necks thick.
    • Bill strong, pointed.
    • Feet palmate, legs short & laterally compressed.
    • Wings short, pointed.
    • Plumage dense; rectrices short & stiff.
    • Black, white, & grey.
  23. Sphenisciformes
    • Ex. penguins
    • Location: Southern Hemisphere

    • Large to very large.
    • Flightless waterbirds.
    • Wings paddle-like
    • Tail short.
    • Bill stout.
    • Feet palmate; legs short, set well back on body
    • Remiges absent
    • Plumage dense.
    • Black & white.
  24. Procellariformes
    • Ex. tubenoses
    • Location: worldwide, oceans

    • Small to very large. Long-winged seabirds.
    • Bill stout to slender, hooked, & covered with horny plates.
    • Nostrils tubular.
    • Feet palmate, halux reduced or absent
    • Plumage combinations of black, gray, brown & white
  25. Ciconiiformes
    • Ex. storks
    • Med. to very large.
    • Long-legged & long-necked wading birds.
    • Bill long (longer than head)
    • Feet not fully webbed, halux incumbent or slightly elevated.
    • Wings long & rounded.
    • Various colors but usually simple or no pattern.
  26. Pelecaniformes
    • Ex. pelicans, herons, and allies
    • Location: worldwide

    • Large to very large waterbirds.
    • Bill moderately to very long, pointed or hooked
    • Nostrils reduced or absent; legs short.
    • Wings long.
    • Plumage mostly black & white, some brown; bare areas colorful.
  27. Suliformes
    • Ex. boobies, gannets, & allies
    • Location: worldwide

    • Large waterbirds.
    • Bill moderately to very long, pointed or hooked
    • Nostrils reduced or absent
    • Gular pouch.
    • Feet totipalmate (webbing reduced in Frigatebirds); legs short.
    • Wings long.
    • Plumage mostly black & white, some brown; bare areas colorful.
  28. Charadriiformes
    • Ex. shorebirds, gulls, & allies
    • Location: worldwide

    • Small to large.
    • Diverse birds of aquatic habitats.
    • Wings long, pointed; tail usually short.
    • Either: relatively long-legged, long-necked, & with moderate to long, slender bill, & with halux absent or rudimentary [neck short, bill short & conical, in a few]; OR relatively compact build, with bill laterally compressed, straight or hooked, & feet palmate.
    • Plumage dense, usually cryptically colored.
  29. Acciptriformes
    • Ex. vultures, hawks, osprey, & allies
    • Location: worldwide

    • Med to very large.
    • Predatory and scavenging birds.
    • Bill strongly hooked.
    • Fleshy cere at base of bill.
    • Legs & feet stout, strong, with strongly curved claws (=raptorial feet)
    • Wings large, variably shaped.
    • Color variable.
    • Face or head bare in some.
    • Generally drab colored, often with streaking or barring
  30. Strigiformes
    • Ex. owls
    • Location: worldwide

    • Medium to very large.
    • Nocturnal, predatory birds with large head, round or heart-shaped facial disc & large forward-facing eyes.
    • Bill short, strongly hooked
    • Fleshy cere at base of bill.
    • Legs & feet stout with strongly curved claws (=raptorial feet)
    • Feet zygodactyl (outer toe reversible)
    • Tarsi feathered
    • Wings rounded.
    • Feathers soft, mottled, barred, or spotted in grays, browns, white; many have ear tufts
  31. Coliiformes
    • Ex. mousebirds
    • Location: Africa

    • Med sized.
    • Distinctive compact birds that clamber through vegetation.
    • Bill stout, short, decurved.
    • Legs fairly short, thick; 1st & 4th toes reversible.
    • Wing short, rounded; tail very long, slender, stiffened.
    • Plumage dense, soft, almost hair-like; crested.
    • Gray or brown.
  32. Leptosomiformes
    • Ex. cuckoo roller
    • Location: Madagascar & Comoros Islands
    • Small.
    • Monotypic order of the distinct Cuckoo Roller, which is a sexually-dimorphic habitat generalist.
    • Diet appears to be mostly invertebrates and small vertebrates.
    • Nests in cavities.
  33. Trogoniformes
    • Ex. trogons
    • Location: Pantropical

    • Med sized.
    • Arboreal birds with short necks, long tails.
    • Bill short, broad, culmen decurved, maxilla often serrate.
    • Feet small, weak, heterodactyl
    • Wings rounded; tail long, graduated, square-tipped.
    • Plumage dense, lax.
    • Metallic green, blue or brown above, red or yellow on belly
  34. Bucerotiformes
    • Ex. hoopoes, hornbills, & allies
    • Location: Old World

    • Small to large birds.
    • Omnivorous with generally strong, downcurved bill, which may be very large.
    • Often associated with forested habitats, bu some more terrestrial, open country species.
    • Cavity-nesters
  35. Piciformes
    • Ex. woodpeckers, barbets, & allies
    • feet: zygodactyl
    • Location: nearly Worldwide

    • Small to large.
    • Diverse, arboreal birds.
    • Bills variable: straight & chisel-like, needle-like, hooked, short & blunt, or compressed & inflated.
    • Feet zygodactyl.
    • Plumage color varies.
  36. Coraciiformes
    • Ex. rollers, kingfishers, & allies
    • Location: worldwide

    • Small to large.
    • Diverse, mostly arboreal birds with large heads, large prominent bills
    • Bills straight or decurved, pointed or hooker.
    • Feet generally small, syndactyl
    • Wings & tail variable
    • Usually brightly colored
  37. Cariamiformes
    • Ex. seriemas
    • Location: South America

    • Med sized ground-birds with long-legs, drab plumage. Hooked beaks are used to catch a variety of animal prey, and reptiles are often beaten on the group before consumption.
    • Vocal
    • Build stick nests
  38. Falconiformes
    • Ex. falcons & caracaras
    • Med to large.
    • Predatory birds.
    • Bill strongly hooked, fleshy cere at base of bill
    • legs & feet stout, strong with strongly curved claws (=raptorial feet).
    • Wings large, variably shaped.
    • Color variable.
    • Face or head bare in some.
    • Drab colored, often with streaking or barring
  39. Psittaciformes
    • Ex. parrots
    • Location: Pantropical 

    • Small to large.
    • Large-headed, short-necked arboreal birds
    • Bill powerful, thick, & very strongly curved; upper bill greatly overlaps lower
    • Legs short, feet strong, zygodactyl
    • Wings pointed; tail fanshaped or long & pointed.
    • Plumage sparse; generally brightly colored, especially green with red, yellow & blue patterns.
  40. Passeriformes
    • Ex. perching birds
    • Location: Worldwide

    • tiny to very large.
    • Very diverse land birds.
    • Bill variable.
    • Feet ansiodactyl, with well-developed incumbent halux
    • Tarsi usually scutellate, sometimes booted. Shapes & colors very diverse.

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