WFC111 - M1

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lndsyfree
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244271
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WFC111 - M1
Updated:
2013-11-01 10:58:29
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wfcb
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Collection of terms and definitions from the material for M1
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  1. Archaeopteryx
    • fully feathered
    • furcula
  2. Deinoonychus
    16 shared traits with birds
  3. Sinosauropteryx
    downy feathers
  4. Epidexipteryx
    display feathers (for ornamentation)
  5. Sinosauropteryx
    preserved pigment in fossils
  6. Paleognathe (#orders/species)
    • 5 orders
    • 60 species
  7. Galloanserae (#orders/species)
    • 2 orders
    • 476 species
  8. Neoaves(#orders/species)
    • 33 orders
    • 10105 species
  9. Odontognathe (#orders/species)
    2 extinct orders
  10. static pressure
    pressure exerted uniformly in all directions
  11. dynamic pressure
    kinetic energy due to motion of air molecules
  12. Bernoulli's Law
    static+dynamic=constant
  13. Newton's 3rd Law
    for every action, there is an equal and opposite rxn
  14. Wing loading
    • mass/Area
    • Low: more maneuverable, less power needed (i.e. hummingbird)
    • High: larger birds (i.e. swan)
  15. Aspect ratio
    • span/wing chord
    • Low: wide, short wings for short, powerful flight (i.e. sparrow)
    • High: long, narrow wings for gliding, soaring flight (i.e. albatross)
  16. Wing shapes: elliptical
    • short, rounded
    • low aspect, low loading
    • -highly maneuverable
    • Ex. songbirds
  17. Wing shapes: high-speed
    • pointed
    • high aspect, low loading
    • - high speed in open: endurance
    • Ex. falcons
  18. Wing shapes: soaring
    • long, narrow
    • high aspect, med loading
    • -long efficient flight; long take-off
    • Ex. albatross
  19. Wing shapes: high lift
    • Very broad
    • med. aspect, med. loading
    • - static soaring: can carry heavy prey
    • Ex. eagles, vultures
  20. Flapping
    • thrust & lift on downstroke
    • lift on upstroke
  21. Gliding
    • use weight to overcome air resistance
    • lose altitude
  22. Soaring
    • maintain or increase altitude
    • passive (thermals) or dynamic using wind gradient over ocean
  23. Hovering
    generates lift on downstroke & upstroke (maintain position)
  24. Formation
    use the upwind vortices generated by wing tips of bird in front
  25. Contour feathers
    • basic vaned feathers of body and wings
    • pennaceous distal and pumulaceous inner
  26. Remiges
    • flight feathers of the wing
    • pennaceous, asymmetrical vanes
  27. Retrices
    • tail feathers
    • pennaceous, asymmetrical vanes
  28. Semiplumes
    • intermediate between down and contour feathers
    • distinct rachis longer than any barbs
  29. Down (adult)
    • extremely plumulaceous for insulation
    • lack a central rachis or very short
  30. Natal down
    • covers hatchling birds
    • simpler in structure than adult down
    • rarely has a central rachis
  31. Powder down
    • special feathers with barbs that disintegrate into a fine powder
    • grow continuously & never molted
  32. bristles
    • contour feathers without vanes
    • only whiskery central rachis
    • sensory organs
  33. filoplumes
    long, hairlike feathers that monitor position of pennaceous feathers
  34. Anisodactyl
    first toe backwards, other 3 forwards
  35. Zygodactyl
    two toes forward, two toes back
  36. Heterodactyl
    1st and 2nd toes backwards, 3rd and 4th forwards
  37. Syndactyl
    1st toe back, 2nd and 3rd toes partially fused, with 4th toe forward
  38. Pamprodactyl
    all 4 toes forward, with 1st and 4th able to move back
  39. Palmate
    front 3 toes webbed
  40. Totipalmate
    all 4 toes fully webbed
  41. Semipalmate
    Front 3 toes partially webbed
  42. Lobate
    series of lobes on toes
  43. Raptorial
    deeply cleft toes, sharp talons
  44. Pectoralis major
    • largest muscle of body
    • attaches to keel and humerus
    • powers downstroke
  45. 5 key muscle regions
    • Neck
    • Tail
    • Leg
    • Wing
    • Pectoral
  46. To which bones is pectoralis minor attached?
    • Humerus
    • Coracoid
    • Scapula
    • Sternum
  47. trioseal canal
    attaches pectoralis minor to the humerus
  48. Pectoralis minor (supracoracoideus)
    • powers upstroke
    • connected to humerus by the trioseal canal
  49. Important muscles of the leg
    • Caudofemoralis
    • Flexor digitorum longus
  50. What gland is located at the base of the tail?
    Uropygial gland
  51. 3 major muscles of the tail
    • Caudofemoralis
    • Lateralis caudae
    • Levator caudae
  52. List the coverts from top to bottom
    • Marginal
    • Lesser secondary
    • Median secondary
    • Greater secondary
  53. List the 6 proofs of Avian-Reptilian Origin
    • 1. scales and feathers
    • 2. skull: single occipital condyle
    • 3. single middle ear bone
    • 4. lower jaw bone: 5 fused bones
    • 5. nucleated red blood cells
    • 6. ovipary
  54. List the traits that identify class Aves
    • Feathers
    • Bills
    • Bipedalism + digitigrade feet
    • Fusion/reduction of hands, head, and pelvis
    • Pneumatic bones
    • Well-developed keel of breastbone
    • Furcula
    • Flight-specialized forelimbs
    • Centralized body mass
    • Endothermic
    • Highly-developed brains/neural system
    • Acute senses
    • extensive parental care
    • highly developed social behavior
  55. T/F: members of class Aves are ectotherms
    False. Members of class Aves are endothermic.
  56. List evidence in favor of the thecodont hypothesis
    Lack of clavicles (furcula) in dinosaurs
  57. List the key shared characteristics to support the Theropod hypothesis
    • 1. elongated armss + forelimbs
    • 2. 3-fingered, clawed, opposable grasping hands
    • 3. Large eye sockets
    • 4. Flexible wrist with semi-lunate carpal bone
    • 5. hollow, thin-walled bones
    • 6. 4 toes/foot, supported by 3 main toes
    • 7. bipedal stance
    • 8. reduced, posteriorly stiffened tail
    • 9. furcula
    • 10. similar eggshell microstructure
    • 11. feathers
  58. List the two main theories for the origin of flight
    • 1. Arboreal (thecodont theory)
    • 2. Cursorial (theropod theory)
  59. profile drag
    caused by friction, proportional to the size of surface
  60. induced drag
    caused by vortices at wingtip
  61. alula
    helps maintain laminar flow at low speed to decrease profile drag

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