# 1st Step Written (2016)

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1. Define Kh
• Watt hour constant
• The value of 1 revolution of the meter disk, Expressed in watt hours.
2. Define Rr
• Register Ratio
• The number of turns of the 1st gear of the register to cause the 1st (or right hand) dial pointer to complete 1 full revolution which = 10,000 watt hours or 10kwhrs.
3. Define Rg
• Gear Ratio
• The number of turns of the meter disk to cause the 1st (or right hand) dial pointer to complete 1 full revolution = 10,000 watt hrs or 10kwhrs.
4. Define Rs
• Reduction at Shaft
• The ratio between the number of teeth on the 1st gear of the register to the number of entries on the disk shaft.
5. Define Kr
• Register Constant or Multiplier
• Multiplier of the register, due to gearing.
6. Define TF
• Transformer Factor
• Multiplier of the register, due to CT’s and/or CT X PT ratios.
7. Define Drive
A Potential-Flux and a Current-Flux, acting on a disk, in a time and space displacement.
8. Define Drag
A permanent magnet calibrated at the factory, with the known voltage and amperage to set the speed of the disk.
9. Define Lag
Potential-Flux must lag Current-Flux by exactly 90 electrical degrees at unity power factor to establish max torque of the disk at any given load power factor.
10. Define Record
A kilowatt-hour register, counting disk revolutions, displaying them in kilowatt-hours, accomplished at reduction at shaft
11. Define Form
Industry standard to describe the meter
12. Define Test Amps
Amperage used with line voltage to set the speed of the disk in 1 hour’s time. (1000Rph 1phase) (500Rph Poly phase)
13. Define Class
Rated amperage a meter can continuously handle per phase, provided the meter housing and wiring are adequate
14. List the 6 parts of an Electro-Mechanical Meter
Base, Meter Disk, Kilowatt Hour Register, Permanent Magnet, Stator, Cover
15. List the 3 major meter types
• A Base-electromechanical
• Socket-electromechanical
• Socket-Solid state
16. List the 6 major parts of a Solid State meter.
• Base
• Cover
• Digital Display
• CT's or Hall Effect Pickups
• Circuit Board
• Current Coils
17. What are the 4 basic EM meter functions?
Drive, Drag, Lag, Record
18. Define Test Amps
Amperage used with line voltage to set the speed of the disk in 1 hour’s time. (1000Rph 1phase) (500Rph Poly phase)
19. Define PKh
Primary Watt-hour Constant

The Watt-hour Constant
x Transformer Factor
20. Define Demand
The average rate of consumption over a specific period of time
21. Define Calibrating Constant
The inverse of the number of current circuits in series under test.

(Establishes the Kh of individual elements)
22. Define Power
An electrical load expressed in watts or kilowatts without a relationship to time. E x I=Watts
23. Define Energy
An electrical load expressed in watts or kilowatts times the number of hours it’s used.

E x I x time factor = Kwhr
24. Define Stator (Meter Element)
The unit that provides the driving torque in a watt-hour meter. It includes the Potential-Coil, the Current-Coil and the related framework to provide a magnetic flux or path
25. Blondel's Theorum
In a system of N-conductors, N-1 metering elements properly connected, will measure power and/or energy consumed, provided that all potential coil(s) have a common connection in which no current circuit(s) are connected.
26. Test Amps Formula
• E x I x CC x TF
• 1,000 Rph for single phase
• 500 Rph for Polyphase
27. Register Ratio Formula
• 10,000 x Kr
• TFxKhxRs
28. Watts Formula
• Kh x 3600 x revs
• Time in seconds
29. Kh Formula
• 10,000 x Kr
• TF X Rr x Rs
30. Rs Formula
• 10,000 x Kr
• TF x Kh x Rr
31. Rg Formula
Rr x Rs
32. Kr Formula
• Kh x Rr x Rs x TF
•        10,000
33. Power Formula
Volts x Amperes  (or)  E x I
34. Energy Formula
Volts x Amperes x Time  (or)  E x I x Time
35. Demand Formula
• E x I x CCx TF                                                      1000
• where “I” is equal to the amperage
• on the meter under test
36. Draw a single phase delta bank and secondary lines
37. Draw and connect FM1/FM2/FM12 meters abase and socket
38. Transformer Factor Formula
• TF =  10,000 x Kr
•         Kh x Rr x Rs
• (or)

CT ratio x PT ratio = TF
39. List the 4 basic Solid State meter functions
• Sample
• Calculate
• Convert
• Display
40. Define Sample
Sample: samples current & voltage at the CTs and meter stabs
41. Define Calculate
Calculate: Multiplies current & voltage in phase to calculate watts being used
42. Define Convert
Converts data into a digital signal to be sent to the digital display
43. Define Display
Displays consumption in Kwhrs or KW for billing purposes
44. Define Current Circuits (CC)
The number of current circuits in series under test
45. Define A-Base Meter
An electromechanical meter where the line and load side conductors are physically connected to the bottom of the meter
46. Define Socket Type Meter
A meter designed to plug into a pre-existing, pre-wired meter housing designed for the meter type and load.
47. Define Creep
With applied voltage only, the meter disk makes 1 full revolution either forwards or backwards in 10 minutes or less.
48. Network System
2 hots and a neutral connected to a wye system
49. Define Detent
A mechanical or solid state device used to prevent reverse rotation of the meter disk
50. Be able to use all formulas to solve equations.
51. What is a segment check?
Every pixel is lit up at once to test full functionality of the display
52. Ohm's Law
E=I x R
53. Pythagorean's Theorem
a2 + b2 = c2
54. Define ERT