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those groups of people who have been historically and systematically excluded from advantage, or oppressed by a dominant group
categories of marginalization?
race, ethnicity, class, gender, sexual orientation, religion, physical ability and immigrant status
a process and a set of institutional relationships by which groups are historically and systematically excluded from advantage or oppressed by a dominant group
access by all members at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life
limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods
term used for indigenous people of america
American indian/Alaska native nations or tribes
where are there a majority of native americans?
out west past the mississippi
By state, where are all the native americans?
California, Arizona, new mexico, and texas
how did the native americans get to America?
they came over on bearing strait
how was native American history passed down?
- no written history
the earliest immigrants were?
who were common ancestors of present day Chinese and Japanese?
the earliest immigrants
the earliest immigrants were homo sapiens that lacked?
- no agriculture
- had dogs
early descendants of modern native americans?
flint and obsidian (volcanic glass)
in the paleo indian period what was the dietary staple?
where meat was cooked?
what occurred during the archaic indian period because of climate?
drier, hotter climate promoted plant growth, gathering increased ----- grinding tools were made
in what period was nutritional adequency good, and they had a varied diet
archaic indian period
where did the woodland Indians live?
small villages near water
what did the woodland Indians invent?
- development of storage pit and pottery
- bow and arrow
- blow dart
was there plant growing during the woodland Indians period?
- yes plant domestication and horticulture
- more growing of plants
what did the Mississippian Indians advance?
advanced social environment with increased interactions between nations
where did missippian Indians settle?
in fertile valleys where they began extensive agriculture
staple crops of Mississippian indian period?
corn, beans, squash
3 big food for native americans?
who settled in the southeast?
5 civilized tribes
who settled in the northeast?
new York - Iroquois nations
who settled in the south west
who settled in the plains?
Mississippi and Missouri rivers
during what period did the Europeans arrive?
what did the Europeans bring when they arrived?
- horse and guns
- rye and wheat
- cattle, hogs, sheep
- distilled spirits
what did the Europeans do to the native americans?
- made them move off their land and tried to break up the groups
what did the BIA want the Indians to do?
follow US culture
bureau of indian affairs
what did the BIA do to the Indians?
- tried to mainstream native americans
- forced acculturation
- sent children to boarding schools
self determination and education act?
promoted participation in government and education
who founded the boarding schools?
when were the native americans granted citizenship?
in 1924 under the Snyder act
why did the hopi and Iroquois reject US citizenship?
in favor of their own indian citizenship under tribal sovereignty
what did many native American do about the Snyder act?
- they ran their own government still
- didn't recognize US as a country
land a tribe reserved for itself or assigned to the tribe when it relinquished other land areas to the US
native americans had the worst of the three?
- high poverty rate
- low socioeconomic status
- high unemployment rate
what was extremely high among native americans?
gender roles in native American culture?
- men - hunter and gatherers
- women- food gathering and preparation
what is an important value?
what is food used as?
food is considered?
- a precious resource
what is food influenced by?
geography and climate
why was meat valued?
it was considered healthy
herbal teas were used for
enjoyment and health
what is known as the 3 sisters?
t or f, there were a lot of sweets in the traditional diet
false, VERY LITTLE SWEETS
core food of native americans
maize is not a _____ powerhouse
current US consumption of maize?
up to 30% of food eaten has some tie to corn
sweetener of choice in northeast?
original native American dishes in northeast?
- baked beans
- corn pudding
- pumpkin pie
southern has what kind of soil??
rich soil with many food resources
original native American dishes in the south?
sweetener of choice in south?
plains Indians were?
- gathered wild plants
- hunted wild game
what did pueblo communities do in south west?
farmed beans, chillies, corn and squash
apache and Navajo were ? in south west
nomadic hunter and gatherers
fruits and pads are ?
rich in soluble fiber
- "the tree of life"
- pods are ground into flour
- good source of calcium, iron and zinc
is mesquite is fermented what is it used for?
buds are rich in soluble fiber and iron
what is cholla cactus used for?
- culinary, medical, cosmetic
what do northwest coast natives eat?
what do Alaskan natives eat?
- diet marginal
- semi nomadic
traditional foods are still made for?
substitutions made in contemporary food habits?
- beef instead of game
- white flour in frybread instead of corn and mesquite flour
- water supply was diverted
- caused poverty, malnutrition and starvation
lard, sugar and white flour
who had to depend on commodity food?
different about Mexican pimas?
- only 8% had diabetes
- population as a whole was not overweight
genetic predisposition to store fat because inability to properly regulate blood sugar levels
thrift gene hypothesis