BCHM 307 Quiz IV

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MRK
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244317
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BCHM 307 Quiz IV
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2013-11-06 17:15:46
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Thermo glycolosis
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Thermo
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  1. The first Law of Thermodynamics
    • Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be converted from one form to another.
    • generally lose as heat
  2. The Second law of thermodynamics
    • all systems tend to become more disorganized
    • increased entropy
  3. Biological reaction tent to occur if
    • they release heat
    • lead to disorder
  4. Spontaneous Rxn
    when products are favored over the reactants
  5. Gibbs free energy
    • a function that determines the spontaneity of a reaction
    • G cannot be measured directly (only ∆G)
    • if ∆ G is negative the reaction is spontaneous
    • if ∆G is zero, the reaction is at equilibrium
    • if ∆G is positive the reaction is non-spontaneous
  6. ∆G = ∆H - T∆S
    • ∆G = the difference in Gibbs free energy
    • ∆H = the difference in enthalpy
    • T = the absolute temperature in K
    • ∆S = the change in entropy of the universe
    • guppies are hell without tartar sauce
  7. A reaction can be spontaneous if
    • it is exothermic (-∆H) and leads to disorder (+∆S)
    • it is really exothermic, and leads to increased order (-∆S)
    • It is endothermic, but leads to a lot of disorder (+∆S)
    • It itself is non-spontaneous but is coupled to a spontaneous one
  8. ∆G
    • describes the free energy change under any specified condtions
    • must know [Reactants] and other aspects of subcellular conditions (difficult to find)
  9. ∆G˚
    • describes the free energy change under standard condtions:
    • temp @ 25˚C
    • pressure @ 1 atmosphere
    • solutes at 1 M (except water) (pH = 0)
  10. ∆G˚'
    • is the free energy change under standard conditions at pH 7
    • = -2.303 RT log([P]/[R])
  11. ATP Hydrolysis
    • ATP + H2O = ADP + Pi + H+
    • super high ∆G˚' = -30.5kJ/mol
    • very spontaneous
  12. e.g. of coupled rxn
    • glucose-6-phosphate = fructose-6-phosphate
    • - ∆G˚' = +1.7 kJ/mol
    • fructose-6-phosphate = fructose-1,6-bisphosphate + ADP
    • - ∆G˚' = -14.2 kJ/mol
    • therefore over all ∆G˚' = -12.5 kJ/mol
    • ie coupling with ATP makes it favorable
  13. catabolism
    • breakdown of large molecules to smaller ones
    • streat to glucose to carbon dioxide
    • releases
  14. Anabolism
    • synthesis of large molecules from smaller ones
    • carbon dioxide to glucose to starch
    • requires input of energy
  15. OIL RIG
    • oxidation is the loss of electrons
    • reduction is the gain of electrons
  16. Oxidation Reduction (redox)
    • Transfer of e-
    • have an associated ∆G
    • this energy can be used in metabolism
  17. Reductant
    the more reduced compound is oxidized
  18. oxidant
    the more oxidized compound is reduced
    • NAD+ NADP+
    • nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide / phosphate
    • catobolic processes
    • oxidized gets 2e- in hydroxide
  19. Oxidized form of NAD/NADP
  20. Reduced form of NAD/NADP
    • FAD (reduced from FADH2)
    • FMN (reduced from (FMNH2)
    • co-enzyme
    • electron carrier
    • accepts one e- at a time
    • up to 2
    • cycle between oxidized and reduced forms
  21. FADH- with one H
  22. FADH2 with 2 H
    • ATP
    • need 30.5 kJ/mol of energy for syntheses
    • Not for energy storage (glycogen, fat, sucrose, startch)
    • can be rapidly resynthesized
  23. glycolysis provides substrates for:
    • citric acid cycle
    • anaerobic glycolysis
    • alcoholic fermentation
  24. glycolysis uses in a general sence
    • glucose
    • ADP
    • Pi (inorganic P)
    • NAD+
  25. glycolysis produces in a general sense
    • pyruvate
    • ATP
    • NADH
  26. Step 1:
    • Product: glucose-6-phosphate + ADP + H+
    • enzyme: hexokinase
    • Co-factor: ATP
    • Arrow: ->
    • Type of rxn: phosphory group transfer
  27. Step 2:
    • Product: fructose-6-phospahte
    • enzyme: phosphoglucose isomerase
    • Co-factor: none
    • Arrow: <->
    • Type of rxn: Isomeration-rearrangment
  28. Step 3:
    • Product: fructose-1,6-bisphoshate + ADP + H+
    • enzyme: phosphofructokinase
    • Co-factor: ATP
    • Arrow: ->
    • Type of rxn: phosphoryl group transfer
  29. Step 4:
    • Product: dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehye-3-phospate
    • enzyme: aldolase
    • Co-factor: None
    • Arrow: <->
    • Type of rxn: nonhydrolytic cleavage rxn
  30. Step: 5
    • Product: glyceraldehyde-3-phospate
    • enzyme: triosephosphate isomerase
    • Co-factor: None
    • Arrow: <->
    • Type of rxn: Isomerization-rearrangement
  31. Step 6:
    • Product: 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate + NADH + H+
    • enzyme: glyceraldehyde-3-phospate dehydrogenase
    • Co-factor: NAD+ + Pi
    • Arrow: <->
    • Type of rxn: Oxidation reduction, phosphoryl group trasphate
  32. Step 7:
    • Product: 3-phosphoglycerate + ATP
    • enzyme: phosphoglycerate kinase
    • Co-factor: ADP
    • Arrow: <->
    • Type of rxn: substrate level phophorylation
  33. Step 8:
    • Product: 2-phosphoglycerate
    • enzyme: phosphoglycerate mutase
    • Co-factor: None
    • Arrow: <->
    • Type of rxn: Isomerization-rearrangement
  34. Step 9:
    • Product: phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) + H2O
    • enzyme: enolase
    • Co-factor: None
    • Arrow: <->
    • Type of rxn: non hydrolytic cleavage
  35. Step 10:
    • Product: pryrvate + ATP
    • enzyme: Pyruvate kinase
    • Co-factor: ADP + H+
    • Arrow: ->
    • Type of rxn: substrate level phosphorylation
  36. ∆G˚' for glycolysis
    -73.3 kJ/mol
  37. Glycolysis net equation
    • glucose + 2NAD+ + 2Pi + 2ADP ->
    • 2 pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H+
  38. Why do you need NAD+ for glycolysis
    it is a place for the e- to go
  39. Without O2
    ATP is produced directly from glycolysis
  40. How is NAD+ regenerated in anaerobic situations in yeast and mammals?
    Step 1:
    • Products: NAD+ and Lactate
    • then transported to liver where gluconeogensis happens
  41. How are the irreversible reactions of glycolysis overcome in gluconeogenesis?
    • has four new steps
    • doesn't use: hexokinase, phophofructokinase, or pyruvate
  42. Step 1 of Gluconeogenesis
    • Enzyme: pyruvate carboxylase
    • Makes: ADP, P and 2H
  43. Step 2 Glucosgenesis
    + GTP
    • Enzyme: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase
    • Makes: GDP + CO2 +
  44. Step 9 of Gluconeogenesis:
    + H2O
    • Enzyme: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase
    • Makes: Pi +
  45. Step 11 of Geucoeogenesis
    + H2O
    • Enzyme: glucose-6-phospatase
    • Makes: Pi +
  46. What are the key energy producing steps in glycolysis?
    • Step 7 with phosphoglycerate kinase
    • Step 10 with pyruvate kinase

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