# BCHM 307 Quiz IV

The flashcards below were created by user MRK on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

1. The first Law of Thermodynamics
• Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be converted from one form to another.
• generally lose as heat
2. The Second law of thermodynamics
• all systems tend to become more disorganized
• increased entropy
3. Biological reaction tent to occur if
• they release heat
4. Spontaneous Rxn
when products are favored over the reactants
5. Gibbs free energy
• a function that determines the spontaneity of a reaction
• G cannot be measured directly (only ∆G)
• if ∆ G is negative the reaction is spontaneous
• if ∆G is zero, the reaction is at equilibrium
• if ∆G is positive the reaction is non-spontaneous
6. ∆G = ∆H - T∆S
• ∆G = the difference in Gibbs free energy
• ∆H = the difference in enthalpy
• T = the absolute temperature in K
• ∆S = the change in entropy of the universe
• guppies are hell without tartar sauce
7. A reaction can be spontaneous if
• it is exothermic (-∆H) and leads to disorder (+∆S)
• it is really exothermic, and leads to increased order (-∆S)
• It is endothermic, but leads to a lot of disorder (+∆S)
• It itself is non-spontaneous but is coupled to a spontaneous one
8. ∆G
• describes the free energy change under any specified condtions
• must know [Reactants] and other aspects of subcellular conditions (difficult to find)
9. ∆G˚
• describes the free energy change under standard condtions:
• temp @ 25˚C
• pressure @ 1 atmosphere
• solutes at 1 M (except water) (pH = 0)
10. ∆G˚'
• is the free energy change under standard conditions at pH 7
• = -2.303 RT log([P]/[R])
11. ATP Hydrolysis
• ATP + H2O = ADP + Pi + H+
• super high ∆G˚' = -30.5kJ/mol
• very spontaneous
12. e.g. of coupled rxn
• glucose-6-phosphate = fructose-6-phosphate
• - ∆G˚' = +1.7 kJ/mol
• fructose-6-phosphate = fructose-1,6-bisphosphate + ADP
• - ∆G˚' = -14.2 kJ/mol
• therefore over all ∆G˚' = -12.5 kJ/mol
• ie coupling with ATP makes it favorable
13. catabolism
• breakdown of large molecules to smaller ones
• streat to glucose to carbon dioxide
• releases
14. Anabolism
• synthesis of large molecules from smaller ones
• carbon dioxide to glucose to starch
• requires input of energy
15. OIL RIG
• oxidation is the loss of electrons
• reduction is the gain of electrons
16. Oxidation Reduction (redox)
• Transfer of e-
• have an associated ∆G
• this energy can be used in metabolism
17. Reductant
the more reduced compound is oxidized
18. oxidant
the more oxidized compound is reduced
• nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide / phosphate
• catobolic processes
• oxidized gets 2e- in hydroxide
• FMN (reduced from (FMNH2)
• co-enzyme
• electron carrier
• accepts one e- at a time
• up to 2
• cycle between oxidized and reduced forms
• ATP
• need 30.5 kJ/mol of energy for syntheses
• Not for energy storage (glycogen, fat, sucrose, startch)
• can be rapidly resynthesized
23. glycolysis provides substrates for:
• citric acid cycle
• anaerobic glycolysis
• alcoholic fermentation
24. glycolysis uses in a general sence
• glucose
• Pi (inorganic P)
25. glycolysis produces in a general sense
• pyruvate
• ATP
26. Step 1:
• Product: glucose-6-phosphate + ADP + H+
• enzyme: hexokinase
• Co-factor: ATP
• Arrow: ->
• Type of rxn: phosphory group transfer
27. Step 2:
• Product: fructose-6-phospahte
• enzyme: phosphoglucose isomerase
• Co-factor: none
• Arrow: <->
• Type of rxn: Isomeration-rearrangment
28. Step 3:
• Product: fructose-1,6-bisphoshate + ADP + H+
• enzyme: phosphofructokinase
• Co-factor: ATP
• Arrow: ->
• Type of rxn: phosphoryl group transfer
29. Step 4:
• Product: dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehye-3-phospate
• enzyme: aldolase
• Co-factor: None
• Arrow: <->
• Type of rxn: nonhydrolytic cleavage rxn
30. Step: 5
• Product: glyceraldehyde-3-phospate
• enzyme: triosephosphate isomerase
• Co-factor: None
• Arrow: <->
• Type of rxn: Isomerization-rearrangement
31. Step 6:
• Product: 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate + NADH + H+
• enzyme: glyceraldehyde-3-phospate dehydrogenase
• Arrow: <->
• Type of rxn: Oxidation reduction, phosphoryl group trasphate
32. Step 7:
• Product: 3-phosphoglycerate + ATP
• enzyme: phosphoglycerate kinase
• Arrow: <->
• Type of rxn: substrate level phophorylation
33. Step 8:
• Product: 2-phosphoglycerate
• enzyme: phosphoglycerate mutase
• Co-factor: None
• Arrow: <->
• Type of rxn: Isomerization-rearrangement
34. Step 9:
• Product: phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) + H2O
• enzyme: enolase
• Co-factor: None
• Arrow: <->
• Type of rxn: non hydrolytic cleavage
35. Step 10:
• Product: pryrvate + ATP
• enzyme: Pyruvate kinase
• Arrow: ->
• Type of rxn: substrate level phosphorylation
36. ∆G˚' for glycolysis
-73.3 kJ/mol
37. Glycolysis net equation
• 2 pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H+
38. Why do you need NAD+ for glycolysis
it is a place for the e- to go
39. Without O2
ATP is produced directly from glycolysis
40. How is NAD+ regenerated in anaerobic situations in yeast and mammals?
Step 1:
• then transported to liver where gluconeogensis happens
41. How are the irreversible reactions of glycolysis overcome in gluconeogenesis?
• has four new steps
• doesn't use: hexokinase, phophofructokinase, or pyruvate
42. Step 1 of Gluconeogenesis
• Enzyme: pyruvate carboxylase
• Makes: ADP, P and 2H
43. Step 2 Glucosgenesis
+ GTP
• Enzyme: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase
• Makes: GDP + CO2 +
44. Step 9 of Gluconeogenesis:
+ H2O
• Enzyme: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase
• Makes: Pi +
45. Step 11 of Geucoeogenesis
+ H2O
• Enzyme: glucose-6-phospatase
• Makes: Pi +
46. What are the key energy producing steps in glycolysis?
• Step 7 with phosphoglycerate kinase
• Step 10 with pyruvate kinase
 Author: MRK ID: 244317 Card Set: BCHM 307 Quiz IV Updated: 2013-11-06 22:15:46 Tags: Thermo glycolosis Folders: Description: Thermo Show Answers: