mendelian genetics

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melissag94
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244372
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mendelian genetics
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2013-11-06 15:21:38
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BIO exam
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  1. father of genetics?
    gregor mendel
  2. what did mendel experiment on? under what conditions?
    • common garden peas
    • had to have a short life span, had to reproduce in large numbers
  3. how many characteristics did the pea have?
    seven
  4. true of false, every pea in the pod is different
    true
  5. 7 traits of a pea?
    • flower color
    • flower position
    • seed color
    • seed shape
    • pod shape
    • pod color
    • stem length
  6. progeny that result from a cross between two parental organisms are referred to as the?
    F1 generation
  7. A cross between two members of the F1 generation results in ?
    F2
  8. those characteristics that appear in the F1 and can be seen
    dominant traits
  9. those that diappear in the F1 and cannot be seen
    recessive traits
  10. genes present in an organism
    genotype
  11. appearance of an organism with respect to the blood type
    phenotype
  12. parents transmit information about inheritable traits via factors or
    genes
  13. diploid organisms have ___ genes/traits each being carried on one member of a _____ ____ of chromosomes
    • two
    • homologous pair
  14. alternate forms of a gene?
    alleles
  15. homologous chromosomes carry the same gene (allele) ____ recessive or dominant
    homozygous
  16. homologous chromosomes each carry a different gene (allele)
    heterozygous
  17. alleles are?
    particulate entities
  18. I ____ individual receives one allele from one parent and one allele from the other parent
    diploid
  19. No _____. when gametes are formed during meiosis each allele has an ___ chance of ending up in any of the four ____ ____
    • mixing
    • equal
    • haploid nuclei
  20. when present dominant alleles are?
    always expressed
  21. recessive alleles are only expressed when?
    the individual is homozygous recessive
  22. a cross between two individuals involving a single phenotypic trait controlled by a single gene
    monohybrid cross
  23. what does the standard mendelian ratio say?
    Aa x Aa will always result in a phenotypic ratio of 3:1 and genotypic ratio of 1:2:1
  24. standard mendalian ratio always?
    works
  25. allows one to determine if an individual with a dominate trait is hetero or homozygous
    test cross
  26. a cross involving two traits(phenotypica characteristics) controlled by two unliked genes
    dihybrid cross
  27. what can predict the probability of two traits being inherited together?
    dihybrid corss
  28. ratio for dihybrid cross that always works?
    9:3:3:1
  29. probability of independent events occurring together is equal to the product of their individual probabilities
    statistical law
  30. neither allele is dominate and both are expressed simultaneously
    incomplete dominance
  31. melanin?
    brownish pigment
  32. can you tell the genotype by the phenotype?
    yes
  33. phenotypic ratio?
    1:2:1
  34. one gene with alleles controls the expression of a second gene with its own alleles
    complementary genes
  35. human eye color is _____, but it is ____ controlled by a single gene with two alleles
    • inherited
    • not
  36. 1 primary gene, with a ____ _____ that slightly alters the phenotype
    modifier gene
  37. what do blue eyed people lack in the front layer of their iris?
    melanin
  38. the black layer at the back of the iris viewed through the front layer
    blue color
  39. brown eyed people have?
    branching
  40. melanin containing pigment cells in the front layer
    branching
  41. several modifier genes interact to ?
    produce in individual eye color
  42. eye color is under the influence of approximately how many genes?
    15
  43. genes may have more than ___ alleles
    2
  44. any one ___ individual has only two alleles, but there may be more in the pool
    2N
  45. four phenotypes of blood?
    • A
    • B
    • AB
    • O
  46. what is blood type based on?
    genetically controlled red blood cells surface antigen
  47. rbc's bear antigen A?
    type A
  48. rbc's bear antigen B
    type B
  49. rbc's bear antigen A and B
    type AB
  50. rbc's bear neither A or B
    type O
  51. gene for blood type?
    I
  52. type A and type B can either be?
    homozygous dominant or heterozygous
  53. human genetic information is packaged in ____ pair of autosomes (somatic) and one pair of ____ chromosomes
    • 22
    • sex
  54. XX?
    females
  55. XY
    male
  56. type O is?
    homozygous recessive
  57. X chromosome is ____ than the y, it carries more info
    larger
  58. where parents carry recessive allele, but do not show it?
    autosomal recessive inheritance
  59. metabolic disorder resulting from an inability to metabolize lactose
    galactosemia
  60. symptoms of galactosemia in infants?
    • malnutrition
    • diarrhea
    • severe vomiting
    • damage to eyes, liver, brain
  61. galactosemia is a ____ gene?
    recessive
  62. aa equals?
    homozygous recessive
  63. AA equals?
    homozygous dominant
  64. Aa equals?
    heterozygous
  65. lysosomal disorder?
    tay sachs disease
  66. brain cell lipids?
    gangliosides
  67. what can not be broken down in lysosomes that swell, burst, and the lysosomal enzymes released kill the cell
    gangliosides
  68. children appear normal up to 8 months, then signs of mental deteriorations appear in what disease?
    tay sachs disease
  69. tay sachs disease is ____ % lethal
    100
  70. for what disease can a test be done to figure out if you're a carrier?
    tay sachs disease
  71. type of dwarfism caused by an autosomal dominant allele?
    achondroplasia
  72. what disease does not have homozygous dominant or (AA) people? what happens to them
    • achondroplasia
    • they are usually born a still born
  73. some genes carried on the X chromosome are expressed because the Y chromosome is so small
    x linked recessive inheritance
  74. what occurs with x linked recessive inheritance in males?
    alleles will be expressed whether they are recessive or not
  75. hemophilia A is inherited in what type of manner?
    x linked recessive inheritance
  76. what is hemophilia A?
    a bleeding disorder
  77. abnormal movement of chromosomes?
    nondisjunction
  78. what chromosome causes down syndrome?
    trisomy 21
  79. egg is fertilized outside fallopian tube and starts to develop in body cavity
    ectopic pregnancy
  80. the dangers of delayed pregnancy correlates directly with ?
    the age of the mother

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