# Science vocab chapter 12

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1. Direct current (DC)
• A current in which charged
• particles travel through a circuit in only one direction

E.g. anything that uses a battery
2. Alternating current (AC)
• A current in which electrons move
• back and forth in a circuit

• an electrical grid
3. Transformer
• An electrical device that changes
• the size of the potential difference of an alternating current

• E.g. an object may only need 110V, and a
• transformer will change 1,000V into that
4. Circuit breaker
• A safety device that is placed in
• series with other circuits that lead to appliances and outlets

• E.g. usually put in place in case of lightning
• strikes, so that appliances don’t short circuit
5. Fuse
• A safety device that is found in
• older buildings and some appliances; like a circuit breaker, it is placed in
• series with other circuits that lead to appliances and outlets

E.g. old houses electrical panels have fuses
6. Electrical power
• The rate at which an appliance
• uses electrical energy

E.g. a dryer takes greater electrical power than a toaster
7. Watt (W)
• A unit of electrical power; 1
• kilowatt = 1,000W

E.g. a dryer uses 4,510 watts
8. Kilowatt (kW)
• A practical unit of electrical
• power; 1kW = 1,000W

E.g. a dryer uses 4.51kW
9. Electrical energy
• The energy that is used by an
• appliance at a given stetting; is determined by multiplying its power rating by
• the length of time it is used

• E.g. even though a dryer uses more power, a water heater is
• running for longer, making use more energy
10. Kilowatt-hour (kW∙h)
The practical unit of electrical energy

• E.g. the amount of kW∙h of a appliance that uses 5 kW over 2 hours is
• 10kW∙h
11. EnerGuide label
A label that gives details about how much energy an appliance uses in one year of normal use

E.g. the rating of a dryer is 912 kW∙h
12. Smart meter
• A meter that records the total electrical energy used hour
• by hour and sends this information to the utility company automatically

E.g. found commonly on the side of houses
13. Time of pricing
• A system of pricing in which the cost of each kW∙h
• of energy used is different at different times of the day

• E.g. earlier in the day costs less than in the
• afternoon
• The electricity that is consumed by an appliance or device
• when it is turned off

E.g. toasters, cellphones, tv’s
15. Efficiency
The ratio of useful energy output to total energy input, expressed as a percentage

E.g. incandescent light bulbs are 5% efficient
The continuous minimum demand for electrical power

E.g. Ontario’s is 12, 000MW
17. Hydroelectric power generation
• The generation of electrical power using a source of moving
• water

E.g. using a dam as hydroelectric power generation
• A demand for electricity that is greater than the base load
• and is met by burning coal and natural gas

E.g. Ontario’s is 15, 000MW to 20, 000MW
• The greatest demand for electricity, which is met by using hydroelectric
• power and natural gas

E.g. Ontario’s is above 20, 000MW
20. Renewable energy source
• A source of energy that can be replaced in a relatively
• short period of time

E.g. solar power, wind energy, hydropower
21. Non-renewable energy source
A source of energy that cannot be replaced as quickly as it is used

E.g. fossil fuels
22. Solar energy
• Energy that is directly converted from the energy of the sun
• into electricity

E.g. solar panels
23. Photovoltaic effect
• The generation of a direct current when certain materials
• are exposed to light

E.g. solar panels
24. Biomass energy
Energy that is generated from plant and animal matter

E.g. burning plants
 Author: dilanf ID: 244483 Card Set: Science vocab chapter 12 Updated: 2013-11-02 14:18:53 Tags: Science vocab chapter 12 Folders: Description: Science vocab chapter 12 Show Answers: