Anatomy of Spine

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  1. Primary Curvature
    where does it developed?
    convex/concave anteriorly?
    found in which region??
    • Primary curvature: Kyphosis
    • developed in fetus
    • concave anteriorly
    • retained in thoracic and sacral regions in adults
  2. Secondary Curvature
    where does it developed?
    convex/concave anteriorly?
    found in which region?
    • Secondary curvature: lordosis
    • developed after birth
    • convex anteriorly
    • formed in cervial and lumbar regions
    • develped as a result of postural changes
    • brings the centre of gravity into a vertical line
  3. What are the 5 regions of the vertebral column?
    • Cervical: 7
    • Thoracic: 12
    • Lumbar: 5
    • Sacral: 5 -> fuse together to form the sacrum
    • Coccygeal: 3-5
  4. 3 Major parts of a typical vertebra
    • Body
    • Vertebral arch
    • Vertebral foramen
  5. What are found in the vertebral arch?
    • 2 pedicles
    • 2 laminae
    • 7 processes (2 transverse, 4 articular, 1 spinous)
  6. What is Pars interarticularis?
    • found between the superior and inferior articular processes
    • weakest part of the vertebral arch
  7. What is spondylolysis?
    Fracture of the pars interarticularis resulting in the disconnection of the vertebral arch form the vertebral body
  8. What is spondylolisthesis?
    A vertebra sliding forward compressing the spinal cord and resulting in neurological damage
  9. What are the borders of the intervertebral foramen?
    • Superior: inferior vertebral notch
    • Inferior: superior vertebral notch
    • Anterior: intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies
    • Posterior: facet joint between the articular processes of the 2 vertebrae
  10. What is the use of the intervertebral foramen?
    for passage of spinal nerves and blood vessels
  11. What is spondylosis?
    • Degenerative changes of the disc and facet joint due to OA¬†
    • Subluxatoin of facet joints
    • Narrowing of intervertebral and spinal foramen¬†
    • Spinal canal stenosis - compression of nerve roots (pain, sensory loss or muscle weakness in the limb)
    • annular bulge of disc
  12. What are the types of spina bifida?
    • Spina bifida occulta (small defects with no protrusion of meninges and spinal cords)
    • Spina bifida cystica: Meningocele (meninges protruding), Myelocele (spinal cord protruding), Meningomyelocele (both spinal cord and meninges protruding)
  13. 4 Characteristics of cervical vertebra
    • small body
    • large and triangular vertebral foramen
    • transverse foramen
    • short and bifid spinous process
  14. What are the atypical cervical vertebrae?
    • C1
    • C2
    • C7
  15. What is the name of C1?
    The Atlas
  16. 6 structures found in the Atlas
    • Lateral mass (with transverse process and foramen)
    • anterior arch
    • posterior arch
    • vertebral foramen
    • transverse process
    • transverse foramen
  17. What is the Joint between C1 and the skull?
    • Atlanto-occipital joint
    • synovial joints comprising the convex occipital condyles which articulate with the concave superior articular surface of C1
    • primary motion: flexion-extension -> nodding
  18. What is the name of C2?
    The Axis
  19. 7 Structures found in the Axis
    • Dens
    • Body
    • Transverse foramen
    • Transverse process
    • Pedicle
    • Lamina
    • Spinous process (bifid)
  20. What is the joint between C1 and C2?
    • Atlanto-axial joint
    • Dens extends cranially to form the axis of rotation with atlas
    • No intervertebral disc
    • Primary function: lateral rotation -> no
  21. What are the ligaments involved in the atlanto-axial joint?
    • Cruciate ligament: superior longitudinal band, transverse ligament, inferior longitudinal band
    • Transverse ligament (part of the cruciate ligament): keeps dens in contact with the anterior arch of C1
    • Alar ligament: prevent excessive rotation
  22. What is Whiplash injury?
    • hyperextension and hyperflexion of the neck
    • fracture of atlas
    • fracture of dens
    • Torn transverse ligament
  23. 4 Characteristics for thoracic vertebra
    • heart-shaped body
    • articulation facets on body and transverse process for rib attachment
    • small and round vertebral foramen
    • long and slender spinous process
  24. 3 characteristics of lumbar vertebra
    • Massive and kidney-shaped body (for weight-bearing purpose)
    • large and triangular vertebral foramen
    • short and sturdy spinous process
  25. 5 Characteristics of Sacrum
    • single bone consisting of 5 fused vertebrae
    • triangular in shape
    • concave anterior surface with 4 pairs of anterior sacral foramen
    • convex posterior surface with 4 pairs of posterior sacral foramen
    • sacral hiatus
  26. Characteristic of coccyx
    a small triangle bone representing 3-5 fused coccygeal vertebrae
Card Set:
Anatomy of Spine
2013-11-03 16:09:49
MSS Anatomy

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