RAD-128 CH.8 Geriatric Imaging

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Author:
anatomy12
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244522
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RAD-128 CH.8 Geriatric Imaging
Updated:
2013-11-02 14:51:17
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xray
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  1. what is the age of a geriatric patient
    why are they considered old at this age
    • 65 yrs and up
    • they recieve and are eligible for medicare benefits and SS benefits and it is the retirement age
  2. what accounts for 80% of deaths in people 65+
    heart disease stroke and cancer
  3. what causes patients discomfort social and psychological difficulties
    polypharmacia (use of multiple medications) heart disease hypertension diabetes arthritis pulmonary disease visual and hearing impairment
  4. what characteristics are very common in geriatrics
    fear vs depression dementia vs depression
  5. what are early indications of alzheimers
    • dementia(is the loss of mental functions such as thinking, memory, and reasoning that is severe enough to interfere with a person's daily functioning.)
    • confusion and memory deficits
  6. what causes depression
    • geriatric being a burden to the family
    • fear of losing good health
    • giving up independent lfestyle
    • chronic illnesses
  7. what disease is frequently seen in radiology
    alzheimers
  8. what are the non specific symptoms of geriatric patiens
    • dizzines
    • falling for no reason
    • infections without fevers
    • urinary incontinence
  9. what different body systems are associated with aging
    • integumentary
    • head and neck
    • pulmonary
    • GI tract
    • hepatic
    • genitourinary
    • musculoskeletal
    • neurological
  10. what are the normal changes of the skin due to aging
    • –The skin wrinkles, becomes lax, and loses turgor
    • –The vascularity of the dermis decreases, and the skin of white people begins to look paler and more opaque
    • –Brown macules called “lentigines” appear on the back of the hands, on the forearms, and face
    • –Seborrheic keratoses and actinic keratoses may develop
    • –Nails lose their luster and may yellow and thicken
  11. what must we use when caring for geriatric skin because it is easily traumatized
    full bed table pad
  12. what are the normal changes of aging caused in the head and neck
    • mild loss of vision acuity = presbyopia
    • tear production increases or decreases
    • sensory neural and conductive changes occur in the ear
    • hearing loss is common
    • there is loss of muscle mass in neck
    • kyphosis
  13. what changes in the pulmonery system
    • lung capacity diminishes
    • cough reflex become less effective
    • normal respiratory defense mechanism lose effectiveness
  14. patients with what disease cannot be expected to lie flat for more than brief periods of time since this position increases dyspnea
    chronic pulmonary disease
  15. how do we position the patient when doing a UGI with chronic pulmonary disease
    when doing chest radiographs of the geriatrics with this disease what are the breathing instructions
    • upright position to prevent aspiration
    • hold breath on second inspiration
  16. what are the changes in cardiovascular health
    • coronary arteries calcify lose elesticity
    • arota branches dilate and elongate
    • heart valves thicken
    • decline in coronary blood flow
    • baroreceptors become less sensitive
  17. what are the implications for the radiographer to be aware of with cardiovascular change
    • patient tires easily, allow rest intervals
    • hypothermia due to decreeased circulation ; avoid chilling
    • Avoid rapid position changes, especially lying to sitting to standing to avoid postural hypotension; allow patient to adjust to new position before walking
  18. normal changes of the GI system
    • Gastric secretion, absorption and motility decreases
    • The abdominal muscles weaken
    • Many patients are edentulous (without teeth), have dentures or partial plates
    • Esophageal motility declines
  19. Implications for radiography in GI system changes
    • instruct patient to drink contrast slowly so they dont choke
    • position patient in an up right position
    • schedule the examso the patient can have breakfast close to usual time
  20. list the changes of the hepatic system
    • Liver size decreases
    • Enzyme activity and synthesis of cholesterol decrease
    • Bile storage is reduced
  21. implications for radiographer in hepatic changes
    increased potential for drug toxicity and RT should be alert for adverse drug reactions
  22. changes in Genitourinary system (women)
    • Muscle tone and bladder capacity decrease
    • Pubic hair becomes sparse
    • Vaginal atrophy occurs
    • Involuntary bladder contractions increase
  23. changes in Genitourinary system (men)
    • Prostate gland enlarges
    • Tone of bladder neck increases
    • Urinary bladder capacity decreases
    • Size of penis and testes decreases
  24. implications for radiographer dealing with genitourinary changes
    • Loss of muscle tone may make patient more susceptible to urinary incontinence
    • Limited bladder capacity
    • May need to urinate more frequently
    • Have bedpan and/or urinal available
  25. changes in musculoskeletal system
    • Bone mass is reduced; bones become weaker
    • Muscle mass decreases;replaced by fibrous connective tissue
    • Muscle strength decreases
    • Intervertebral discs shrink, vertebrae collapse
    • Articular cartilage erodes

    • –Normal lordotic curve of lower back flattens–Flexion and extension of lower back diminished
    • Placement of neck and shaft of femur changes
    • Posture and gait change
    • Men: gait narrows and becomes wider based
    • Women: legs bow and gait is somewhat waddling
  26. implications for the radiographer to be aware dealing with musculoskeletal changes
    • Increased muscular weakness increases patient’s discomfort
    • Decreased tolerance for movement also increases discomfort
    • Use positioning sponges to facilitate maintaining necessary positioning for various studies
    • Increased risk of falling; assist patient to prevent falls
  27. what proceudre has become common in hospitals throughout the united states
    total joint replacement
  28. why is arthroplasty needed
    • Severe degenerative joint disease
    • Joint deformities
    • Trauma
  29. what are the two common areas for arthroplasty in geriatrics
    hip and knees
  30. what is the most common complication after hip replacement
    disolocation of the prosthesis
  31. what are the implications for the radiographer when dealing with a ptient with arthroplasty
    • Understand and adhere to weight bearing and mobility limits of restricted joint
    • Transport patients by gurney
    • Use pillow or block to prevent adduction of hip arthroplastic joint
    • Avoid positioning patient with weight on surgical incision site
    • Do not hyperflex affected joints
    • Shield patient as per department protocols
  32. list the neurologic changes due to aging
    • Brain weight changes; reduced size of neurons–Possible short-term memory loss
    • Sensorimotor function decreases–Decreased reaction time
    • Need more time to perform activities
    • Decreased postural stability
    • Decreased proprioception; spatial relation problems
    • Loss of sensitivity to deep pain
  33. what are the implications for the radiographer dealing with neurological changes of the patient
    • Patient may not be aware of painful stimuli until injury has occurred
    • Possible visual problems in dimly lit room
    • Be certain patient understands directions
    • Allow patient more time to execute moves
  34. what must the radiographer take into consideration when dealing with the geriatrics
    cultutal and aging

    Some elderly patients are accepting of whatever treatment is offered, whereas others require a detailed explanation from the family members.
  35. what is the estimated amount of elder abuse
    one out oevery 20 seniors
  36. what is elder abuse
    Elder abuse is the neglect, mistreatment or exploitation of anyone age 65 or older (or any disabled dependent adult).
  37. what are the three categories of elder abuse
    • Domestic elder abuse
    • Institutional elder abuse
    • Self-neglect or Self-abuse
  38. what must we do if we spot elder abuse
    it is radiographer’s ethical and legal responsibility to report to appropriate person

    Need to be aware of local and state laws concerning reporting suspected elder abuse, penalties for not reporting abuse

    Follow the policies and procedure for the institution where the radiographer is employed
  39. what must we avoid when transferring patients from gurney to wheelchair or to radiographc table
    pinching the skin

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