Application of Biomechanics - walking
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What is locomotion?
occurs from the repetition of the gait cycle.
What is the gait cycle?
The time between successive ground contacts of the same foot
Phases of the gait cycle and how many cycles are passed through in a single gait cycle?
- Stance phase
- Swing Phase;
- Each extremity passes through 2 phases
What is a stride?
The time between ground contacts of the right heel.
What is a stride length?
Measured from initial contact of one lower extremity to the point at which the same extremity contacts the ground again
What is a step?
Half of a stride; the time from ground contact of one heel to ground contact of the other heel
What the % of the gait cycle is spent in stance and what % of the gait cycle is spent in swing?
- 60% in stance;
- 40% in swing;
What is Stance phase?
Phase of walking gait cycle where foot is in contact with the ground
What is swing?
Phase of normal walking gait cycle where foot is not in contact with the ground
What is the typcial walking speed in adults and when does it decrease?
- 1.5 m/s;
- Decreases occur with aging, injury, and disease
What is a typical stride length and what is this known as?
- 1.5 meter;
- known as cycle length
What is a typical stride rate and what is this known as?
- 1 cycle/second;
- known as cycle rate;
What else increases with increased gait speed?
Cycle length and cycle rate
Describe pelvic movement during walking.
- In frontal plane, moves 5 cm on each side, alternating as leg assumes a support role;
- In transverse plane, rotates 8 degrees, half anteriorly, half posteriorly
What is the GRF patter in normal walking gait?
- Bimodal (two peaks) in shape and of maximal magnitude on the order of 1 to 1.2 fold the body weight;
- Two peaks represent heel contact to midstance and midstance to push-off
Describe the Stance Phase
- 1) Heel Strike - begins when one extremity contacts the ground
- 2) Foot Flat3) Midstance4) Heel off5) Toe Off - continues as long as some portion of the foot is in contact with the ground
Describe the Swing Phase
- Begins when the toe of one extremity leaves the ground;
- Ends just before the heel strike or contact of the same extremity
- 1) Initial swing
- 2) Midswing
- 3) Terminal swing
Reasons and causes why abnormal walking gait occurs?
- Pain from injury;
- Decreased flexibility or range of motion;
- Muscular weakness;
- Neurological disorders
What does muscular weakness in the gluteus maximus contribute to?
Anterior lean of the upper body at heel strike
What does muscular weakness in the gluteus medius and minimus contribute to?
Decrease in stabilizing function during the stance phase of gait, possibly leading to an increased lateral shift in the pelvis and side-to-side movement during the gait
What does muscular weakness in the plantarflexors contribute to?
Reduced push-off and thus step length on the affected side
What does muscular weakness in the dorsiflexor contribute to?
Slapping of the foot during heel contact and increased knee and hip flexion during the swing phase
What does muscular weakness in the quadriceps femoris contribute to?
Forward lean of the trunk or hyperextension of the knee joint
What is hemiplegia?
The affected leg is often circumducted during the swing phase and the affected arm is held across the upper with flexion in the elbow, wrist, and hand
What is parkinsonism?
Can produce characteristic gait pattern of increased hip and knee flexion, forward trunk lean and shuffling step.
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