social psych chap 7. attitudes and change

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social psych chap 7. attitudes and change
2013-11-02 19:43:35
social psychology

test 2
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  1. evaluations of people, objects and ideas
  2. _____ are linked to our genes. identical twins share more attitudes then fraternal twins
  3. the thoughts and beliefs that people form about the attitude object
    cognitive component
  4. peoples emotional reactions toward the object
    affective component
  5. how people act toward the object
    behavioral component
  6. an attitude based primarily on peoples beliefs about the properties of an attitude object
    cognitively based attitude
  7. an attitude based more on peoples feelings and values than on their beliefs
    affectively based attitude
  8. the phenomenon whereby a stimulus that elicits an emotional response is repeatedly paired with a neutral stimulus that does not, until the neutral stimulus takes on the emotional properties of the first stimulus
    classical conditioning
  9. the phenomenon whereby behaviors we freely choose to perform become more or less frequent, depending on whether they are followed by a reward or punishment
    operant conditioning
  10. 1-do not result from a rational examination of the issues
    2-are not governed by logic
    3-often linked to people values, so that trying to change them challenges those values
    affectively based attitudes
  11. an attitude based on observations of how one behave towards an object
    behaviorally based attitudes
  12. attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report
    explicit attitudes
  13. attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable and at times unconscious
    implicit attitudes
  14. ____ attitudes are more rooted in peoples childhoods. whereas _____ attitudes are rooted more in their recent experiences
    implicit; explicit
  15. when attitudes change, they often do so in response to _____ influence
  16. communication advocating a particular side of an issue
    persuasive communication
  17. the study of the conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages, focusing on the source of the communication, the nature of the communication, and the nature of the audience
    yale attitude change approach
  18. in the yale attitude change approach, it is ____ when one factor should be ____ over another
    unclear; emphasized
  19. a model explaning two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: centrally, when people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication, and peripherally, when people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics
    elaboration likelihood model
  20. the case in which people elaborate on a persuasive communication, listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments, which occurs when people have both the ability and the motivation to listen carefully to a communication
    central route to persuasion.
  21. here people are not swayed by logic of arguments, because they are not paying close attention to what the. people are noticing the surface characteristics of the message
    peripheral route to persuasion
  22. if people are truly interested in a topic and thus are motivated to pay close attention to the argument and if people have the ability to pay attention, then they will use
    central route
  23. one thing that determines whether people are motivated to pay attention is the _____ ______ to the topic
    personal relevance
  24. if a person is using central route, an argument is an argument, it wont matter who is talking
  25. when something is relevant people will try to pay attention looking for ____, if it is not relevant people will look for ____ _____
    proof; mental shortcuts
  26. a personality variable reflecting the extent to which people engage in and enjoy forgetful cognitive activities
    need for cognition
  27. attitudes that changed via the central route to persuasion ____ longer
  28. people who base their attitudes on a careful analysis of the arguements will be more likely to ______ consistently with this attitude and more _____ to counterpersuasion
    behave; resistant
  29. persuasive messages that attempts to change peoples attitudes by arousing their fears
    fear arousing communication
  30. fear arousing appeals can also ____ if they are so strong that they _____ people
    fail; overwhelm
  31. an explanation of the two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change : either systematically processing the merits of the arguments or using mental shortcuts. eg: experts are always right
    heuristic systematic model of persuasion
  32. a _____ is a simple rule people use to decide what their attitude is without having to spend a lot of time analyzing every detail about the topic at hand
  33. the problem with the "how do i feel about it?" heuristic is that we can make mistakes about what is ____ our mood, missattributing feelings created by one source to another
  34. making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position
    attitude inoculation
  35. if people have not thought much about the issue- meaning if they formed their attitude via the peripheral route- they are particularly susceptible to an attack on that attitude with ____ appeals
  36. one reason that product placements work is because people dont ____ that someone is trying to ___ our attitudes and behaviors. our ____are down
    realize; influence; defenses
  37. warning people about an upcoming change (in a commercial for instance) makes them less susceptible a ____ in _____
    change in attitude
  38. in adolescents, peers become an important source of ____ _____. peer pressure is linked more to a fear of _____
    social approval; rejection
  39. the idea that when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened, an unpleasant state of reactance is aroused, which they can reduce by performing the threatened behavior
    reactance theory
  40. the stronger the forbidden nature of a thing, the more _____ of _____
    increase of interest
  41. peoples ____ are poor predictors of their behaviors
  42. the strength of the association between an attitude object and a persons evaluation of that object, measures by the speed with which people can report how they feel about the object.
    attitude accessibility
  43. when ____ is high, your attitudes comes to mind whenever you see or thinking about the attitude object
  44. highly accessible behaviors are more likely to ____ spontaneous behaviors, because people are more likely to be thinking about their ____ when they are called on to act
    predict; attitudes
  45. the idea that peoples intentions are best predictors of their deliberate behaviors, which are determined by their attitudes toward specific behaviors, their subjective norms, and their perceived behavioral control
    theory of planned behavior
  46. beliefs about how people care about how people will view a behavior in question
    subjective norms
  47. people intentions are influenced by the ease with which they believe they can perform the behavior
    perceived behavioral control
  48. subliminal messages can be ____ as well
  49. there is ___ evidence that the subliminal messages encountered in everyday life have any _____ on peoples behavior
    no; effect