PSY 336 Exam 3 (Final)

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  1. 3 perspectives on the effect of emotions on cognition
    • Emotion congruence
    • Feelings as information
    • Processing style
  2. Emotion congruence
    • Moods an emotions are associative networks
    • We should be able to learn material that is congruent with out current emotion
  3. Feelings as Information
    Assumes that emotions themselves are informative when we make judgments

    • 2 Assumptions
    • 1. Emotions provide us with a rapid signal triggered by something in our environment
    • 2. Many of the judgments that we make are often too complex to review all the relevant information

    Emotions are heuristics, guesses that work better than chance a lot of the time, short cuts to making judgments or taking action
  4. Processing style
    • Different emotions promote different processing styles
    • Happy and angry moods facilitate use of already existing knowledge structures, such as heuristics and stereotypes
    • Sad mood facilitates more analytical thought and careful attention to situational details
  5. Evaluative judgments
    When in a positive emotional state, we evaluate objects and events in a more positive light; same for when we're in a negative emotional state
  6. Future judgments
    Negative moods lead people to view the future pessimistically; positive moods lead people to look at the future more optimistically
  7. Casual judgments
    • General attributional bias produced by negative and positive moods
    • Anger leads people to blame others for various actions and to be acutely sensitive to unfair actions
    • Sadness leads people to positive events to impersonal, situational causes
  8. The Strange Situation test
    Infants emotional reactions to brief separations from, and reunions with, their caregivers
  9. 3 attachment styles and the 4th style added later
    • Securely attached: distressed when they leave
    • Ambivalently attached: want to be near them upon return but will not be comforted
    • Avoidantly attached: make no effort to interact

    • Main & Solomon (1986) added disoriented/disorganized style
    • Infants respond with disorientation and contradictory behaviors
  10. Classifying childhood disorders -

    How are children diagnosed
    • DSMV (Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders - fifth edition)
    • No clear cut definition of "emotional disorder" vs. "no emotional disorder"
    • Diagnoses are descriptions or patterns of behavior
    • Assessment involved...
    • Checklists of symptoms or behavior patterns
    • Continuous measures
    • Clusters of behaviors are identified
  11. Middle childhood – externalizing versus internalizing  disorders – what are the two predominant emotional disorders in each of these categories?

    What types of emotions are involved (i.e. “disordered”)?
    Roughly what age range are the 2 most common externalizing
    disorders typically seen?
    Externalizing disorders: Hostility, aggression, stealing, lying, etc.

    Internalizing disorders: Anxiety, depression
  12. 3 perspectives on “what” is disordered in emotional disorders
    • 1. Predominance of one emotion ⇉ dominated other possible experiences
    • Depressed people experience more sadness than other emotions
    • Appraisal biases (aggressive children likely to say other kids are being intentionally hostile)

    • 2. Inappropriate emotional responses 
    • Ex: Child laughing when someone else is distressed or crying though nothing happened

    • 3. Dysregulation ⇉ emotions are not properly regulated
    • Inappropriate to the social context
    • May underlie bullying
  13. Psychiatric epidemiology
    Study of how many people show a particular disorder in the population, statistically relating the disorder to factors in people's lives
  14. Prevalence
    Proportion of a population suffering from some disorder over a specified amount of time
  15. Incidence
    Number of new onsets of a particular disorder in a given time
  16. Trends of anxiety disorders from childhood to adolescence
    • Generally increases with age 
    • Separation anxiety disorder more common in early childhood
    • Overanxious disorder more common in adolescence

    • 17% preadolescence with anxiety disorder also depressed
    • 69% adolescents with anxiety disorder also depressed
  17. Trends of depressive disorders from childhood to adolescence – gender difference?
    • Girls are more likely than boys to show anxiety disorders
    • In childhood, both boys and girls ~ equally likely to suffer from depression
    • By late adolescence, females twice as likely
  18. Stress-Diathesis model
    • Stress ↪ something that occurs in the environment
    • Diathesis ↪ a predisposition to a disorder - genetic
    • Neither stress or vulnerability on their own cause a disorder - the specific combination does
  19. Bi-directional effect
    Mutually coercive patterns ↪ children who are more difficult make their parents more angry
  20. Protective factors
    Factors that counteract risks and make things better
  21. Effects of genes (Diathesis)
    • Female vs. Male
    • Genetic component for depressive and anxiety symptoms in children has generally been found to be 20-40%
    • Diathesis not all genetic ↪ mothers' drinking, smoking, or malnourished during pregnancy
  22. 3 different kinds of depressive disorders
    • 1. Major depressive disorder (4+ symptoms)
    • 2. Minor depression (2-4 symptoms)
    • 3. Bi-polar disorder (depression followed by mania)
  23. 5 different kinds of anxiety disorders
    • 1. Panic Attacks
    • Sudden terror; bodily symptoms such as racing heart, dizziness, and shortness of breath

    • 2. Phobias
    • Urge to avoid places, things, or activities

    • 3. Generalized Anxiety
    • 6 months disabling and persistent anxiety/worry

    • 4. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
    • Performing compulsive acts temporarily diminish anxiety

    • 5. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
    • Anxiety, disturbed sleep, flashbacks of event, and avoidance of reminders of event
  24. What kinds of events tend to cause depression versus anxiety disorder?
    • Anxiety Disorder
    • Events that are future directed - involving danger

    • Depression
    • Events that were losses

    • Both
    • Events involving both loss and danger
  25. Cognitive mechanism for sustaining depression versus anxiety
    • Depression → memory
    • Anxiety → attention
  26. Primary, secondary, and instrumental emotions
    • Primary emotions → emotions not experienced fully enough
    • Secondary emotions → emerge to cover up certain primary emotions that were unacceptable
    • Instrumental emotions → emotions learn to express to get their way
  27. Which form of therapy is most effective?
    • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
    • More effective with antidepressant medication
    • Lower rate of relapse
  28. Which form of therapy tends to be the treatment of choice on the clinicians’ end?

    • Cheap
    • Not labor intensive
  29. What types of treatment are available for PTSD sufferers? Which is the most common? Which is the most effective?
    Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy

    • Most common: prescribing drugs
    • Most effective: Exposure therapy (type of cognitive-behavioral therapy)
  30. Social sharing
    • Does not diminish intensity of emotion
    • Benefit comes from making sense of emotions
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PSY 336 Exam 3 (Final)
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