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What is the study of behavioral ecology?
-- How animal behavior is controlled
-- How behavior develops, evolves and contributes to survival and reproduction
What 4 questions are asked in the study of behavioral ecology?
- - Causation
- - Development
- - Function
- - Evolution
Contrast proximate and ultimate causes of behavior.
- Proximate : "How"
- - Focuses on immediate stimulus and mechanism for behavior
- Includes : environmental stimuli, genetic, physiological and anatomical mechanisms
- Ultimate: "why"
- -Focuses on evolutionary significance of a behavior.
- Why it contributes to survival and reproduction
Give examples of each for the following behaviors:
- Fixed action pattern
- Fixed action pattern
- - Unlearned behavior
- - Effected by seasons and circadian rhythm
- - Learning behaviors
- - An animal learns a specific set of stimuli during a limited time called a critical/sensitive period.
How does the environment interact with an animal's genetic makeup to influence the development of behaviors?
- - Quality of diet on mate choice
- - nature of social interactions
- - Opportunities for learning
What is animal communication?
- reception of and response to signals
What is the benefit of complex signaling?
Large amount of information without ambiguity. (requires visualization eg not dark)
How is cross fostering used by behavioral ecologists?
Placing young from one species in the care of adults from another species help identify what the environment contributes to the young's behavior.
Can behavioral traits evolve by natural selection?
Yes, Natural selection favors behaviors that increase survival and reproduction.
What is optimal foraging theory?
-A compromise between nutrition and the cost of obtaining food.
- energy cost & benefit vs. risk of predation.
How is male polymorphism related to game theory?
- - use of different strategies for sexual selection.
- - Within the male uta stansuriana there are the blue , yellow, and orange throated males. All three use different means to ensure reproduction.
Compare intersexual and intrasexual selection.
Intersexual selection: members of one sex choose mates based on particular characteristics.
Intrasexual selection: Involves competition among members of one sex for mates.
What is altruism?
How is inclusive fitness and kin selection related to it?
- - reduces individual fitness but increases fitness of others.
- Inclusive fitness increases the individual's genes and the genes of close relatives
- Kin selection is a natural selection that favors altruistic behavior by enhancing reproductive success of relatives
Describe 4 steps of the developmental process?
- 1 Determination : fate of cells
- 2 Differentiation : different cell types arise
- 3 Morphogenesis: organize and distribute cells
- 4 Growth: increased body size
How is polyspermy prevented
- The formation of fertilization envelope
How is polarity defined in the egg/zygote?
- Polarity defined by yolk distribution
- -Vegetal pole has the most yolk
- - Animal pole has the least yolk
What germ layers are involved in neuralation and somite production?
- - Somites form from mesoderm
- - Nervous system produced from ectoderm.