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Children in developed nations may consume enough calories but lack iron, zinc, and calcium.
- At the age of 5, body mass is lower than at any other age in entire life span.
- Language is the leading cognitive accomplisment in early childhood.
"Just Right" Phenomenon
- A complusive behavior about daily routines/ rituals.
- Have things done in a particular order.
- Peaked at age 3.
- Brains grow rapidly even before birth.
- By age 2 the brain increase in size.
The process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmiion of nerve impules from neuron to neuron.
A long band of nerve fibers that connect the left and right hemisphere ob brain.
Left side controls right side of body. vice versa
What does the Left side of brain control?
- Logical reasoning
- Detailed analysis
- Basics of language
- Little details
What does the Right side of brain control?
- Emotion and creative impulse
- Big picture
Children as Apprentices. What is apprentices?
- Cognitive development is embedded in social context.
- Curious and observant.
- Apprentices- A person whose intellectual growth is stimulated and directed by older more skilled members of society.
- And they...
- 1. present challenges
- 2. Offer assistance
- 3. Provide instruction
- 4. Encourage motivation
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
The skills, knowledge, and concepts that the learner is close to acquiring but cannot master without help
Support tailored to a learners needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process.
Occurs when people talk to themselves
Speedy and imprecise way in which chldren learn new words by mentally charting them into categories according to their meaning.
- Application of rules of grammar even when expectations occur.
- Ex: foots.
Idea that children construct theories to explain everything theysee and hear.
Theory of Mind
Understaning of one's own or anothers human mental processes including emotions, beliefs, intentions, motives, and thoughts.
What are some EDU Programs?
- Head Start
- Private Preschool
- Child- centered programs
- The ability to control whenand how emotions are expressed.
- This is the most important psychosocial development to occur betwen ages2-6 though it continues in life.
- How a personevaluates his/her own worth.
- Ex: intelligence, attractive
- A person's understandig of who he or she is.
- Identity or set beliefs about what he/she is like.
Without adequate control, emotions overpower children.
Difficulty with emotional regulation; involves outward expressions of emotions in uncontrolled ways.
- Difficulty with emotional regulation; involves turnng one's emotional distress inward.
Deliberately hurtful to someone
4 important dimensions for Parenting
- 1. Expressions of warmth
- 2. Strategies for discipline
- 3. Communication
- 4. Expectations for maturity
High expectation, low communication
- High nuturance and communication but rar punishment, guidance or control.
- No order/ structure
Parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible
Parents talk with the child, getting the child to understand why behavior was wrong.
Cultural differences in the role nd behaviors of male and females.
Judgment part of personaliy that internalizes moral standards
Attempt to defend one's self-concept by taking on the behavior or attitudes
- Gendr distinctions are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment.
- 1. Focus n child's understanding
- 2. Children develop concepts about their experience.
A balance of traditionally male and female psychological chracteristcs in a person.
- Our traits and behaviors are the result of interactions between genes and early experiences.
- There are a dozen of biological differences between the male and female brain.
What are the Pros and Cons of participating in sports as a kid?
Pro- better health, less obesity, appreciation of cooperation and fair play, improved problem solving, and respect for teammates nd others.
Cons- Injuries, pressure/stress, parents, time away from studies, low self-esteem
Airways are chronicaly inflamed
The ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others.
Process by which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions becomes routine.
Potentional to master a particular skill or to learn a particular body of knowledge
Mental age/ chron age x 100
Measures of mastery or proficency in reading, math, writing, science, or any other subject
Wechsler Intellegence Scale for Children ( WISC)
An IQ tes designed for school-aged children
- Literally slow, or late thinking.
- Score below 70 on IQ test.
Sternberg's 3 types of intelligences
- 1. Academic/ Analytic- measured by IQ/ achievement test. "book smart"
- 2. Creative- imaginative
- 3. Practical- street smart, common sense.
Ability to regulate one's emotions and peceptive understanding of other peoples feelings
Attention- Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
- A condition in which one has difficulty concentrating and is alo inattentive, impulsive, and overactive.
- ex: neglect, alcoholic moms, family issues, food
- Marked delay
- Dyslexi- Learning disability in reading
A developmental disorder marked by an inability to relate to other peoplenormally, extreme self-absorption and an inability to acquire normal speech.
Type of autistic disorder characterized by extreme attention to details and poor socal skills.
Educational approach in which children with special needs recieve individual instruction within a regular classroom.
Concrete Operational thought
Ability to reason logically about direct experieces and perceptions
The process of organizing things into groups according to some common property
The logical principle that certain characteristics of an object remain the same even if other charachteristics change.
Logical principle that a transformation process can be reversed to restore the original condition.
Peers are very important in learning process
The process by which info is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Stores incoming stimuli for a split second and either passes to working or discards it.
Short term memory
- Current mental activity.
- "Working Memory"
Long term memory
Limitless amount of info
Ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine what to do and then how to monitor it
Tendency to assess one's abilites, achievements, social status, measuring to other peers.
Culture of Children
Particular habits, styles, and values reflect set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distict from adults
People believe they can make a difference/ affect their circumstances
3 common values among 6-11 year olds
- 1. Protect friends
- 2. Don't tell adults what is happening
- 3. Dont be too different from peers
Aggresive-rejected, withdrawn- rejected
Bullies and Victims
Isolated attacks, occasional insults, and unexpected social slights occur in childhood
Repeated systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical verbal or social attacks on weaker person
Legal and genetic relationship amoung relatives in the same home
- 1. Provide basic necessites
- 2. Encourage learning
- 3. Develop self-respect
- 4. Nurture peer relationships
- 5. Offer harmony and stability
Family consisting of father, mother, and any biological children
Family conssts of 2 adults and the chldren of the relationship of one or both parents and/or new partnersip
The capacity to adapt positively to significant adversity.
The tendency to preserve in; or stick to one thought or action for a long time.
Central processor of memory
Produce hornomes that activate other parts of the brain and body.
- More children die of violence, either accidental or deliberate than from any other cause.
- Young kids are more vulnerable to injuries/ abuse than older kids b/c they're impulsive, yet depend on others.
Deliberate action that is harmful to a child's physical, emotional, or sexual well-being.
Failure to meet a child's basic physcial, educational, or emotional needs.
What are some warning signs of Maltreatment?
- Delayed devotion
- Slow growth
- Immature communication
- Lack of curiosity
- Unusual social interaction
The ability to construct mental reps of experiences. Kids use symbols, language, and drawings to represent experiences.
- The ability to represent mentally an object that's not present.
- ex- banana=phone
The ability to use primitive reason and seek answers to all sorts of questions
Focuses/centers on 1 idea or single aspect of a situation or object, excluding all others
Focus on Appearance
Ignores all else
Belief that inanimate objects have "life like" qualities and are capable of action.
Tendency to think the world entirely from one's own personal perspective; can't distinguish from one's own perspective from someone else's perspective.
Thinking that nothing changes
Inability to recognize something can sometimes be restored to its original condition
Amount of a substance remains same when appearance changes
The School Years
- By 6-7, self care is routine and attendence at school is mandated.
- The rate of growth slows down, allowing them to undertake their basic self-care, muscles become stronger
- Being overweight is the most commone nutritional problem. ( being above 85th percentile)
- Excess weight hinders development in every domain.
- Genes affect activity level, food preference, body type, and metabolic rate.
- Obesity- being > 95th percentile.