psych 205 test # 3

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psych 205 test # 3
2013-11-03 14:20:06

chapters 8-13
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  1. Nutritional Deficiences
    Children in developed nations may consume enough calories but lack iron, zinc, and calcium.
  2. Kid facts
    • At the age of 5, body mass is lower than at any other age in entire life span.
    • Language is the leading cognitive accomplisment in early childhood.
  3. "Just Right" Phenomenon
    • A complusive behavior about daily routines/ rituals.
    • Have things done in a particular order.
    • Peaked at age 3.
  4. Brain Development
    • Brains grow rapidly even before birth.
    • By age 2 the brain increase in size.
  5. Myelination
    The process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmiion of nerve impules from neuron to neuron.
  6. Corpus Callosum
    A long band of nerve fibers that connect the left and right hemisphere ob brain.
  7. Lateralization
    Left side controls right side of body. vice versa
  8. What does the Left side of brain control?
    • Logical reasoning
    • Detailed analysis
    • Basics of language
    • Little details
  9. What does the Right side of brain control?
    • Emotion and creative impulse
    • Big picture
  10. Children as Apprentices. What is apprentices?
    • Cognitive development is embedded in social context.
    • Curious and observant.

    • Apprentices- A person whose intellectual growth is stimulated and directed by older more skilled members of society.
    • And they...
    • 1. present challenges
    • 2. Offer assistance
    • 3. Provide instruction
    • 4. Encourage motivation
  11. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
    The skills, knowledge, and concepts that the learner is close to acquiring but cannot master without help
  12. Scaffolding
    Support tailored to a learners needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process.
  13. Private Speech
    Occurs when people talk to themselves
  14. Fast-mapping
    Speedy and imprecise way in which chldren learn new words by mentally charting them into categories according to their meaning.
  15. Overregularization
    • Application of rules of grammar even when expectations occur.
    • Ex: foots.
  16. Theory- Theory
    Idea that children construct theories to explain everything theysee and hear.
  17. Theory of Mind
    Understaning of one's own or anothers human mental processes including emotions, beliefs, intentions, motives, and thoughts.
  18. What are some EDU Programs?
    • Head Start
    • Private Preschool
    • Montesori
    • Child- centered programs
  19. Emotional Regulation
    • The ability to control whenand how emotions are expressed.
    • This is the most important psychosocial development to occur betwen ages2-6 though it continues in life.
  20. Self-esteem
    • How a personevaluates his/her own worth.
    • Ex: intelligence, attractive
  21. Self- Concept
    • A person's understandig of who he or she is.
    • Identity or set beliefs about what he/she is like.
  22. Emotional Balance
    Without adequate control, emotions overpower children.
  23. Externalizing Problems
    Difficulty with emotional regulation; involves outward expressions of emotions in uncontrolled ways.
  24. Internalizing Problems
    • Difficulty with emotional regulation; involves turnng one's emotional distress inward.
    • Overcontrolled.
  25. Prosocial behavior
    Helpful, positive
  26. Antisocial behavior
    Deliberately hurtful to someone
  27. 4 important dimensions for Parenting
    • 1. Expressions of warmth
    • 2. Strategies for discipline
    • 3. Communication
    • 4. Expectations for maturity
  28. Authoritarian Parenting
    High expectation, low communication
  29. Permissive Parenting
    • High nuturance and communication but rar punishment, guidance or control.
    • No order/ structure
  30. Authoratative Parenting
    Parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible
  31. Induction
    Parents talk with the child, getting the child to understand why behavior was wrong.
  32. Sex Differences
    Biological differences
  33. Gender Differences
    Cultural differences in the role nd behaviors of male and females.
  34. Superego
    Judgment part of personaliy that internalizes moral standards
  35. Identification
    Attempt to defend one's self-concept by taking on the behavior or attitudes
  36. Behaviorism
    • Gendr distinctions are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment.
    • 1. Focus n child's understanding
    • 2. Children develop concepts about their experience.
  37. Androgyny
    A balance of traditionally male and female psychological chracteristcs in a person.
  38. Epigenetic Theory
    • Our traits and behaviors are the resultĀ  of interactions between genes and early experiences.
    • There are a dozen of biological differences between the male and female brain.
  39. What are the Pros and Cons of participating in sports as a kid?
    Pro- better health, less obesity, appreciation of cooperation and fair play, improved problem solving, and respect for teammates nd others.

    Cons- Injuries, pressure/stress, parents, time away from studies, low self-esteem
  40. Asthma
    Airways are chronicaly inflamed
  41. Selective Attention
    The ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others.
  42. Automatization
    Process by which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions becomes routine.
  43. Aptitude
    Potentional to master a particular skill or to learn a particular body of knowledge
  44. Intelligence quotent
    Mental age/ chron age x 100
  45. Achievement test
    Measures of mastery or proficency in reading, math, writing, science, or any other subject
  46. Wechsler Intellegence Scale for Children ( WISC)
    An IQ tes designed for school-aged children
  47. Mental Retardatin
    • Literally slow, or late thinking.
    • Score below 70 on IQ test.
  48. Sternberg's 3 types of intelligences
    • 1. Academic/ Analytic- measured by IQ/ achievement test. "book smart"
    • 2. Creative- imaginative
    • 3. Practical- street smart, common sense.
  49. Emotional Intelligence
    Ability to regulate one's emotions and peceptive understanding of other peoples feelings
  50. Attention- Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
    • A condition in which one has difficulty concentrating and is alo inattentive, impulsive, and overactive.
    • ex: neglect, alcoholic moms, family issues, food
  51. Learning disbilities
    • Marked delay
    • Dyslexi- Learning disability in reading
  52. Autism
    A developmental disorder marked by an inability to relate to other peoplenormally, extreme self-absorption and an inability to acquire normal speech.
  53. Asperger Syndrome
    Type of autistic disorder characterized by extreme attention to details and poor socal skills.
  54. Inclusion
    Educational approach in which children with special needs recieve individual instruction within a regular classroom.
  55. Concrete Operational thought
    Ability to reason logically about direct experieces and perceptions
  56. Classification
    The process of organizing things into groups according to some common property
  57. Identity (Conversation)
    The logicalĀ  principle that certain characteristics of an object remain the same even if other charachteristics change.
  58. Reversibility
    Logical principle that a transformation process can be reversed to restore the original condition.
  59. Vygtsky
    Peers are very important in learning process
  60. Memory
    The process by which info is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
  61. Sensory Memory
    Stores incoming stimuli for a split second and either passes to working or discards it.
  62. Short term memory
    • Current mental activity.
    • "Working Memory"
  63. Long term memory
    Limitless amount of info
  64. Metacognition
    Ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine what to do and then how to monitor it
  65. Social Comparison
    Tendency to assess one's abilites, achievements, social status, measuring to other peers.
  66. Culture of Children
    Particular habits, styles, and values reflect set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distict from adults
  67. Social Efficacy
    People believe they can make a difference/ affect their circumstances
  68. 3 common values among 6-11 year olds
    • 1. Protect friends
    • 2. Don't tell adults what is happening
    • 3. Dont be too different from peers
  69. Social Accetance
    Aggresive-rejected, withdrawn- rejected
  70. Bullies and Victims
    Isolated attacks, occasional insults, and unexpected social slights occur in childhood
  71. Bullying
    Repeated systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical verbal or social attacks on weaker person
  72. Family Structure
    Legal and genetic relationship amoung relatives in the same home
  73. Family Fuction
    • 1. Provide basic necessites
    • 2. Encourage learning
    • 3. Develop self-respect
    • 4. Nurture peer relationships
    • 5. Offer harmony and stability
  74. Nuclear Family
    Family consisting of father, mother, and any biological children
  75. Blended family
    Family conssts of 2 adults and the chldren of the relationship of one or both parents and/or new partnersip
  76. Resilience
    The capacity to adapt positively to significant adversity.
  77. Preservation
    The tendency to preserve in; or stick to one thought or action for a long time.
  78. Amygdala
    • Registers emotions
    • Fear
  79. Hippocampus
    Central processor of memory
  80. Hypothalamus
    Produce hornomes that activate other parts of the brain and body.
  81. T/F statements
    • More children die of violence, either accidental or deliberate than from any other cause.
    • Young kids are more vulnerable to injuries/ abuse than older kids b/c they're impulsive, yet depend on others.
  82. Child abuse
    Deliberate action that is harmful to a child's physical, emotional, or sexual well-being.
  83. Child neglect
    Failure to meet a child's basic physcial, educational, or emotional needs.
  84. What are some warning signs of Maltreatment?
    • Delayed devotion
    • Slow growth
    • Immature communication
    • Lack of curiosity
    • Unusual social interaction
  85. Preoperational Intelligence
    The ability to construct mental reps of experiences. Kids use symbols, language, and drawings to represent experiences.
  86. Symbolic Function
    • The ability to represent mentally an object that's not present.
    • ex- banana=phone
  87. Intuitive Thought
    The ability to use primitive reason and seek answers to all sorts of questions
  88. Centration
    Focuses/centers on 1 idea or single aspect of a situation or object, excluding all others
  89. Focus on Appearance
    Ignores all else
  90. Animism
    Belief that inanimate objects have "life like" qualities and are capable of action.
  91. Egocentrism
    Tendency to think the world entirely from one's own personal perspective; can't distinguish from one's own perspective from someone else's perspective.
  92. Static Reasoning
    Thinking that nothing changes
  93. Irreversibility
    Inability to recognize something can sometimes be restored to its original condition
  94. Conversation
    Amount of a substance remains same when appearance changes
  95. The School Years
    • 7-11
    • By 6-7, self care is routine and attendence at school is mandated.
    • The rate of growth slows down, allowing them to undertake their basic self-care, muscles become stronger
  96. Overweight
    • Being overweight is the most commone nutritional problem. ( being above 85th percentile)
    • Excess weight hinders development in every domain.
    • Genes affect activity level, food preference, body type, and metabolic rate.
    • Obesity- being > 95th percentile.