psychology test 5

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psychology test 5
2013-11-05 15:37:30
test psych

emotion and motivation
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  1. a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity
  2. Four factors in considering and understanding emotions
    • - Stimulus occurs  (mother pass away)
    • - physiological changes in the body (knot      stomach, dry mouth, eye dialate)
    • -  take some type of action or behavior (might fall on floor and sob, run away to quite place then cry, maybe laugh cause don't know what to do)
    • -  experience a subjective emotion (relief shes gone no more pain for her, jump up and down cause she was meanest person ever)
  3. what is an example of a secondary emotion

    disappointment, disgust, frustration: if you do these enough to me I turn them into anger
  4. The relationship between anger and emotional intelligence:
    want to read body language -- do you know how to manage anger? do you know how to get out of bed in morning
  5. What are the four theorys of emotion?
    • William James- Lange Theory
    • Cannon-Bard Theory
    • Two-Factor Theory
    • Le Doux
  6. Stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system, which in turn produce an emotional experience in the brain
    • James-Lange Theory
    • S ---to R ---to E (stress response emotion)

    example: one thing leads to another. Gorilla in hall, sprint out of bldg, terrified "I hate gorillas)
  7. a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system an emotional experience in the brain
    Cannon-Bard Theory

    Stimulus -- responseemotion (happen simultnelously one does not proceed the other)
  8. proposed by Schacter and Singer, suggesting that emotions are inferences about the causes of physiological arousal
    • Two-Factor theory
    • S --to R --to ? --to E (stimulus, response, question "why do I feel as I do", emotion)
    • example of the steel bridge and man walks across toward beautiful lady and then swaying bridge with man walks across to beautiful lady
  9. the factual and "feeling" components of memory may seem inseparable, but in reality, they come from two distinct areas of the brain. The "facts" are stored in teh brain's cortex along with other concrete memories.  The memories of the feelings -- the heart beating, tghe sweating -- is stored in teh amygdala deep in the brain's center.  This is the part of the memory that makes it emotional
    Le Doux

    S --to R (response), M + I (memory+interpretation of memory --to E
  10. Whenever you have an emotion you have a ________?
    physiological happen
  11. cognitive and behavioral strategies people use to influence and manage their own emotional experience
    emotion regulation

    example: Karl Malone and Dennis rodman covers him and hits him in the face
  12. changing emotional experience by changing the meaning of our emotional experience
    emotion reappraisal

    when he drove a VW bus getting on freeway and people pass him make him mad then he decided not to have it affect him that way again so he thinks now maybe that persons wife in hospital
  13. messages w/out words... emotional expressions are like words or phrases of a nonverbal language
    • emotional communication
    • (evil eye=someone in trouble; flirting, you can communicate emotion with body language)
  14. Emotional expression is ________.
    • universal
    • we exist because we express emotion. Strongest emotion survives
  15. emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone
    • Darwin's Universality Hypothesis
    • we exist because we experss emotion. person shows strongest emotion survives

    evidence that shows Darwin is correct supported by cross-cultural agreement regarding emotional interpretation
  16. Universal emotions -- facial displays of at least six emotions -- they are
    • anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise
    • (fear and surprise are where the people messed up pictures of these two)
  17. People are generally good at recognizing the emotional expression of others suggests that ______________ the body postures and facial expressions of people theyes are watching
    Observers unconsciously mimic
  18. emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify
    facial feedback hypothesis

    "smiling is contagious"
  19. Why is human lie detection poor?
    mainly because we have a strong bias toward believing others are sincere, and also we don't know which pieces to notice and which to ignore.

    watch body posture, look down and to the left (lieing) body gives it away
  20. Why we do what we do?
  21. thermometer of self-image vs. the comfort zone.
    • --------           -------
    • new nose puts you up here but your self image is still down at the bottom. you have to build self image up little by little
    • --------           ---------
    • ---------         ----------
    • ----------        ----------
    • ---------         ----------
    • ----------        ---------
    • comfort          ---------  self image
    • zone
  22. What are the two most powerful motivators?
    fear and desire

    desire is better motivator than fear desire can be just as powerful as fear
  23. What is Glasser's ideas on identifying with success or failure?
    • Success starts when born
    • (criminal truent shoplifting example)
  24. Motivation is:
    • a. the purpose for or cause of an action
    • b. a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
    • c. the "why/s" of human behavior; why we do what we do
  25. What is the difference between inspiration and motivation?
    • inspiration is extrinsic
    • motivation is intrinsic - it comes from within
  26. try to identify why people do things (what motivates them)
    • motives
    • all behavior is motivated
  27. NO TESTexamples of biological (primary) motives
    hunger, thirst, sex, temperature (need for appropriate body temperature), excretory motive (need to eliminate bodily wastes), sleep and rest motive, activity motives (need for optimal level of stimulation and arousal)
  28. They are unique to primarily humans
    social (psychological motives)
  29. they cannot be satiated
    social (psychological) motives
  30. examples of social (psychological) motives
    to love, to be loved, to feel important, the need for attention, the need for recognition, we want life that makes sense (cognitive consistency motive), need for control motive, novel stimulation motive, achievement motive
  31. what is the motive called when we want life that makes sense?
    cognitive consistency motive
  32. In relationship to cognitive consistency define cognitive dissonance and give examples
    • its dissonant (not consistent with everything else around it) w/out rules
    • example of music notes and a dissonant note.  You rationalize it back to consistency (like why you continue to smoke even though you know its bad. you rationalize that so and so smoked 4 packs and lived to be 78 and you only smoke 2 packs so you're okay because you don't really want to live longer than 78 or more so years.)
  33. All of us want to be in charge of our lives. Do what, when, where and how we want
    Need for control motive
  34. If someone threatens one of our freedoms we say "no way" and we re-assert the freedom (tell son "you can't date that girl you're dating" he says "I'll date who I want"
    psychological reactance
  35. In relationship to the need for control, define and give examples of reverse psychology
    Tell you to do opposite of what I want you to do (example of taking son and girl dating and say lets go get you married right now in las vegas)
  36. We like variety - do something you really like and do a lot of it; we say "I want to do something new"
    novel stimulation motive
  37. says we want to win; want prove we're better winners than other winners
    achievement motive
  38. what are the four types of motives in conflict:
    • approach - approach conflict
    • avoidance - avoidance conflict
    • approach - avoidance conflict
    • multiple approach - avoidance conflict
  39. Define and give example of approach - approach conflict
    • the approachable is good and the other approachable is good -- the conflict comes because you can only pick one of two you can't have both.
    • example: save money for new car, find two you really want, can only afford one
    • example: two good sets of friends; who spend time with one night
    • example: accepted to two good colleges
  40. Define and give an example of avoidance - avoidance conflict
    • two bad things you have to pick one of them. lesser of the two evils.
    • example: you have a toothache you can either stay home and have a toothache/pain or go to the dentist and have pain -- you pick dentist
    • example: have to pay bills (not great); if you don't you will have a bad credit rating
  41. Define and give an example of approach - avoidance conflict
    • approach is good thing; avoidance is bad thing; then conflict. Conflict comes because you have to take the good with the bad.
    • example: you learn good things in class but bad is that you have to take tests
    • example: buying a home (you get privacy but you have to do maintenance and pay house payment.
    • example: having a job - money is good but sometimes the work is bad
  42. Define and give an example of multiple approach - avoidance conflict
    • take all the goods with all the bads that come with it naturally -- the come together
    • example: girl goes to school falls in love guy wants her to quit school and support him as he goes through school)
    • example: marriage (take the good things and qualities with the bad ones)
    • example: relationships are these kind of conflicts
  43. All people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain.  some believe this idea explains all human behavior
    • Hedonic principle
    • We desire pleasure
    • human nature inately desires to be happy or satisfied
    • pain is helpful -- its a teaching tool
  44. An internal state generated by departures from physiological optimality. To be in the state of want or need
    • drives
    • motivational factors -- cause action
    • when were not longer feeling good about something, the drive kicks in to change and fix situation
    • The harder it is to find -- drive becomes STRONGER
  45. Modern psychologists refer to "needs" that motivate behavior
    Drive reduction theory
  46. *****drive reduction theory steps are*****
    • 1. thought occurs
    • (in order to break the addiction process must be broken here)
    • 2. Dwell on thought
    • 3. move towards
    • 4. involved in behavior
    • 5. become satiated
    • (6. Possible addiction)
    • time will pass and then back to step 1
  47. Explain how drive reduction theory works
    • need to break the cycle -- satiation removes the stimuli
    • cyclical - the further it goes the faster it goes
  48. Most theories of motivation distinguish between _______ originating in bodily need and _______originating in social experience.
    • biological motives
    • social motives
  49. What is the idea that "all drives are unpleasant"
    • unpleasant for lack of..... lacking encouragement
    • unpleasant because we don't have what we want; even though we may be working towards something pleasant
  50. An _____ is anything you use to ease your _____
    • addiction
    • pain
  51. describe/examples of substance addiction
    • objects/material in order to help issues
    • stress eating, alcohol and drugs
  52. describe/examples process addiction
    • actions/behaviors that give fulfillment
    • social media, blogging, hobbies, sports, video games etc... workaholic
  53. How are addictions cured
    • accept feelings/control thought
    • way to cure is to FEEL your EMOTIONS AGAIN instead of turning to something to ease pain - face it
    • pain instructs you
  54. define/discuss incentives:
    • reward want or need causes drive
    • object and experience. Things we are driven towards
  55. emphasize how external stimuli pull people in certain directions... the source of motivation lies outside the organism...factors in the environment
    • incentive theories
    • outer stimuli/motivational source
  56. is the principle that inherited characteristics that provide survival or reproductive advantages are more likely than other characteristics to be passed on to the future
    • natural selection
    • survival of the fittest
    • if it's effective it will last
    • social darwinism
  57. focuses on motivation that is created by generation of drive toward a goal from within
    arousal theory
  58. motivation most effective when in ______ of _____. getting people to a certain _____ of _____ to produce an optimal performance.
    • state of arousal
    • state of arousal
  59. point of normal -- normal status quo
  60. what we do to make ourselves feel good (level we feel best at)
  61. Yerkes - Dodson law
    • simple vs. difficult tasks
    • get emotion up or mellow out dependant on task
    • (draw the graph)
    • tasks become less complex ---- emotion ----- tasks become more complex
  62. some of us perform best when it's really tough
    everyone has a different _____ ______ of _____ we work best at
    optimal level of arousal

    (draw graph)
  63. you know why you are motivated to do things
    conscious motivation
  64. No visit parent because you are just too busy.  the real reason is that parent is really mean
    unconscious motivation
  65. slip of tongue.  when true feelings come out
    Freudian slip
  66. a disorder characterized by fear of being fat and severe restriction of food intake
    anorexia nervosa
  67. what are signs of anorexia nervosa
    • eat unusual diet (diet soda and soda crackers)
    • play with food - move it around
    • starve themselves to death
  68. a disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging
    bulimia nervosa
  69. who and why discovers bulimia
    family dentist - acid from purging wears away teeth
  70. when you have a positive outlook on life we tend to _____ _____ (kind compassionate) to other people. the opposite is also true.
    feel-good, do-good phenomenon
  71. NO TEST what are the four external factors overeaters respond to:
    • when they have the opportunity
    • the time is right
    • they eat faster and thus more
    • when the food tastes good
  72. NO TEST explain "when they have the opportunity" factor of overeaters
    offered a really good sandwich, say yes and eat it. offer a second sandwich, overeater says hey free good food lets eat
  73. explain "the time is right" factor for overeatersNO TEST
    manipulate the clock; even though it is only 3:00 instead of regularly 5:00 eat time someone says to overeater it's time for dinner; normal eater says i'm not hungry yet the overeater says oh the clock says time to eat lets eat.
  74. NO TEST explain "they eat faster and thus more" factor for overeater
    • junior highers not a lot of time to eat same with junior high teachers - so they shovel it in as fast as can and eat too much or more
    • - you have to be in a meal at least 20 minutes for the "I'm full" reflex or thought goes off
  75. NO TEST Explain the "when the food tastes good" principle for overeaters
    • eat pie it tastes good so just keep eating more and more and more
    • to help this you can watch the plate size -- eat on smaller plate you don't eat as much
  76. the opposite sex attraction
    heterosexuality (straight)
  77. the same sex attraction (gay lesbian)
  78. both sexes attraction
  79. what theory is it that says "mom writes a note for daughter even before she starts the timp hike saying that her daughter does not have to do the hike
    • expectancy theory or self-fulfilling prophecy
    • the girl stops at the really hard part and cries and then pulls out note and walks off the mountain.
    • her expectancy to begin with was not to hike the mountain
  80. Talk about learns helplesness and learned optimism
    Never receiving positive reinforcement; never being good enough for someone

    somdone always bring positive with you - sometimes denies reality