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what happens if you remove brain regions vital to memory?
- the nervous system's capacity to acquire and retain skills and knowledge
- (library but not a video recorder)
memory is a reconstructive process (jigsaw puzzle)
the purpose of the 3 basic functions of memory
memory takes sensory information and turns it into meaningful patterns you can store for later use
what is the first basic function of memory?
- information is received and processed into neural code
(imagine info is entered w/ a keyboard)
what is the second basic function of memory?
info is stored in the brain
what is the third basic function of memory?
info is retrieved when it is needed
memory is distributed throughout the brain, rather than confined to one specific area
name the memory function of specific brain area
who developed the 3 part memory model?
Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968)
what is the sensory memory and what does it do
a temporary memory system closely tied to the sensory systems
- -lasts only a fraction of a second
- -info changed into neural impulses
- -ex. sparklers
its job to determine which input it important
unattended information is lost
What is in the 3 part memory model?
What are the 2 systems we used to identify primitive features of visual objects?
- parallel processing
- serial processing
processing multiple types of info at once
processing occurs one system at a time
What are some of the visual attention research methods?
- visual search task
- conjunction task
visual search task
look for "target" that differs on only one dimension (parallel processing)
need to search for two features (parallel & serial processing)
what is selective attention?
we do not consciously process unattended to visual stimuli
in-attentional blindness: invisible gorilla
change blindness occurs
what is change blindness?
failure to notice large changes in one's environment
allows us to selectively attend to important info
- -cocktail party effect
- -selective listening studies
short term memory (STM)
storage system that briefly holds info in awareness
info kept in STM for 20-30 secs
working memory (WM)
active processing that keeps info available for current use
STM can only hold a limited amount of info
5-9 pieces of info in our short term memory
organizing info into meaningful units to make it easier to remember
what is the role of each part?
central executive - controls other stuff
episodic buffer-the part that makes it meaningful and give you the bigger picture
long term memory (LTM)
the "permanent" storage of info
- the "hard drive"
- limitless capacity
- cannot be erased for healthy ppl
from short term to long term
- formed using medial temporal lobes
- -forms links between info (synaptic)
- -gradually strengthens connections (systems)
storage takes place in neocortex
- once connections are strong MTL is no longer vital for that memory
- -HM is proof!
What did Henry Molaison proved?
he proved that once connections are strong, medial temporal lobes are no longer vital for that memory
he removed his medial temporal lobes
neural processes involved when memories are recalled and then stored again for later retrieval
can reconsolidation be altered?
yes depends on circumstance, new information
How are memories stored?
shallow processing and deep processing
very easy to process here
- maintenance rehearsal -repeating over & over
- (repeat until you remember it permanently)
- elaborative rehearsal- encoding in a more meaningful way
- using that new info and relate it to old info to make it a bigger meaning
cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize and use information
- guide our attention
- fill in holes
- interpret meaning
- overlook inconsistent information
what is a potential problem of schemas?
b/c schema allow us to overlook inconsistent info, it means your memory is personally bias such as something w/ a strong emotional component
unit of information; not physical realities
very similar to a neuron network
How does the node's association networks work?
item's characteristics are linked to nodes
the closer the nodes, the stronger the association will be
activating one node increases the chances that closely associate nodes will also be activated
by saying red, other pieces of memory would be recalled
How do we form strong memories?
- retrieval = practice makes perfect
- benefits of tests
- students who study by test taking remember info better than traditional studying
anything that helps a person retrieve info stored in LTM
recall vs. recognition
encoding specificity principle
any stimulus that is encoded along w/ an experience that later triggers memory for the experience
- ->context dependent memory
- -> state dependent memory
your physiological state affect how you recall the information
learning aids, strategies, and devices that improve recall through the use of retrieval cues
ex. ROYG. BIV
condense big pieces of info to simple term
long term memory (LTM)
- the relatively permanent storage of information
- -composed of several systems
- -its more of a network of component that works together
how does the old view of memory differ from current view?
old view states that memories differed in strength and accessibility, but all memories were generally the same
current view established that memory is not one entity; it is a process involving interacting systems that share a common function of retaining and using information
what are the 3 types of LTM?
- the systems underlying conscious memory
- retrieving info "we know"
what are the 2 types of explicit memory?
episodic- memory for one's personal past experience
ex. your 16th bday
semantic memory- for facts separate from one's personal experience
ex. george washington was the first president
the system underlying conscious memory
- -cannot put these memories into words
- -procedural memory-a type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits
- -> very resistant to decay-> part of muscle memory
ex. riding a bike, tying your shoes
remembering to do something at some future time
- involves both automatic and controlled processes
- takes up cognitive resources leaving less space in working memory
the inability to retrieve memory from long term storage
-not being able to forget is maladaptive (not assisting adaption)
types of forgetting
- persistence (opposite of forgetting)
forgetting over time
What are the old and current view of transience?
old view- transience occurs due to decay (does occur occasionally)
current view- transience occurs due to interference from other info
In transience, what are the 2 types of interference?
- proactive interference- old info inhibits the ability to remember new info
- ex. learning a and b info; the earlier study of a, essentially blocks the study b material
- retroactive interference- new info inhibits the ability to remember old info
- ex.info b affect info a which makes you do bad on the test
(influences differently w/ certain ppl.)
temporary inability to remember something that is known
-aka "blanking" or "tip of your tongue"
-may caused by interference of words that are similar in some way
-tends to occur more frequently w/ age
just can't recall it even though you know it
the inattentive or shallow encoding of info or events
- -major cause is failing to pay attention
- -can occur when mind goes on "autopilot"
- when we are not focus on something
the continual reoccurrence of unwanted memories
- -the opposite of forgetting; you cannot forget
- -ex. PTSD
a deficit in LTM resulting from disease, brain injury, or psychological trauma in which the individual loses the ability to retrieve vast quantities of info from LTM
retrograde - lose past memories
- anterograde- lose ability to make new memories
- ex. H.M.
What are the 3 ways in which distortion of memory occur?
changing of memories over time so they are consistent w/ current knowledge, beliefs or attitudes
- ppl often recreate memories to be:
- -consistent w/ their current beliefs
- -place themselves in prominent roles
- -put themselves in the best light
vivid episodic memories for the circumstances in which ppl first learned of a surprising, consequential or emotionally arousing event
- ex. Neisser & Harsch: challenger explosion
- personal salience is associated with accuracy; New Yorkers remember 9/11 with greater accuracy
occurs when people misremember the time, place, person or circumstances involved w/ a memory
aka source monitoring errors
ex. false fame effect; cryptomnesia
associating what you know before but you actually don't know it
using an old idea and you don't know that its a old idea, but you give it a new source/meaning
What is the result of incorrect eyewitness?
- the leading cause of wrongful convictions in U.S.
- -75% of conviction have been overturned due to DNA evidence
what are the 2 variables that affect eyewitness accuracy?
- estimator variables - factors related to the witness, perpetrator or event itself
- ex. age, race, weapons focus
- factors that are in the control of the criminal justice system
Are children reliable eyewitnesses?
the justice's view of child witnesses has changed
"daycare cases" of 1980's revealed the need for research on child's ability to give reliable testimony
How are children's accuracy in reporting affected?
question type (open ended question is more accurate)
timing of interview (longer time span from occurrence can alter the pieces of info)
exposure to misinformation
emotional valence of interviewer (threatening interviewer)
even under ideal circumstances, children tend to report less info than adults
cross race effect/other race effect (ORE)
the phenomenon of witnesses remembering own race faces w/ greater accuracy than faces from others
-identification of own race faces is associated w/ more correct identification and less false positives
What are 3 explanations of other race effect?
- attitudes: less racist = less prone to ORE
- (not supported by empirical research)
- physiognomic homogeneity: some races have fewer distinctions in features
- (not supported by empirical research)
- interracial contact: you recognize the races that you are more familiar with
- (supported by empirical research)
- children in interracial communities vs. segregated neighborhood - the more you interact, the more correction of stereotype being placed upon that race
a witness's attention being focused on the weapon rather than the culprit
(witness will remember less about the culprit when a weapon is present thus less accurate report involving the culprit)
2 explanations of weapon focus
- cue-utilization hypothesis- as emotional arousal increases attentional capacity decreases
- ->limites empirical support
- we focus on what is not typical in our environment (weapon) and fail to encode other pieces of info around us
line up procedures: psychological research has changed the way police departments nationwide conduct line-ups
justice system measurer