PSC ch.7

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PSC ch.7
2013-11-04 00:34:27
attention memory

what is memory and when does it fail?
Show Answers:

  1. Henry Molaison
    what happens if you remove brain regions vital to memory?
  2. memory
    • the nervous system's capacity to acquire and retain skills and knowledge
    • (library but not a video recorder)

    memory is a reconstructive process (jigsaw puzzle)
  3. the purpose of the 3 basic functions of memory
    memory takes sensory information and turns it into meaningful patterns you can store for later use
  4. what is the first basic function of memory?
    • encoding
    • information is received and processed into neural code

    (imagine info is entered w/ a keyboard)
  5. what is the second basic function of memory?

    info is stored in the brain
  6. what is the third basic function of memory?
    info is retrieved when it is needed
  7. equipotentiality
    memory is distributed throughout the brain, rather than confined to one specific area
  8. name the memory function of specific brain area
  9. who developed the 3 part memory model?
    Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968)
  10. what is the sensory memory and what does it do
    a temporary memory system closely tied to the sensory systems

    •   -lasts only a fraction of a second
    •   -info changed into neural impulses
    •   -ex. sparklers

    its job to determine which input it important

    unattended information is lost
  11. What is in the 3 part memory model?
  12. What are the 2 systems we used to identify primitive features of visual objects?
    • parallel processing
    • serial processing
  13. parallel processing
    processing multiple types of info at once
  14. serial processing
    processing occurs one system at a time
  15. What are some of the visual attention research methods?
    • visual search task
    • conjunction task
  16. visual search task
    look for "target" that differs on only one dimension (parallel processing)
  17. conjunction task
    need to search for two features (parallel & serial processing)
  18. what is selective attention?

    we do not consciously process unattended to visual stimuli

    in-attentional blindness: invisible gorilla

    change blindness occurs
  19. what is change blindness?
    failure to notice large changes in one's environment
  20. auditory system
    allows us to selectively attend to important info

    • -cocktail party effect
    • -selective listening studies
  21. short term memory (STM)
    storage system that briefly holds info in awareness

    info kept in STM for 20-30 secs
  22. working memory (WM)
    active processing that keeps info available for current use
  23. memory span
    STM can only hold a limited amount of info

    5-9 pieces of info in our short term memory
  24. chunking
    organizing info into meaningful units to make it easier to remember
  25. what is the role of each part?
    central executive - controls other stuff

    episodic buffer-the part that makes it meaningful and give you the bigger picture
  26. long term memory (LTM)
    the "permanent" storage of info

    • the "hard drive"
    • limitless capacity
    • cannot be erased for healthy ppl
  27. consolidation
    from short term to long term

    • formed using medial temporal lobes
    •  -forms links between info (synaptic)
    •  -gradually strengthens connections (systems)

    storage takes place in neocortex

    • once connections are strong MTL is no longer vital for that memory
    •   -HM is proof!
  28. What did Henry Molaison proved?
    he proved that once connections are strong, medial temporal lobes are no longer vital for that memory

    he removed his medial temporal lobes
  29. reconsolidation
    neural processes involved when memories are recalled and then stored again for later retrieval
  30. can reconsolidation be altered?
    yes depends on circumstance, new information
  31. How are memories stored?
    shallow processing and deep processing
  32. shallow processing
    very easy to process here

    • maintenance rehearsal -repeating over & over
    • (repeat until you remember it permanently)
  33. deep processing
    • elaborative rehearsal- encoding in a more meaningful way
    • using that new info and relate it to old info to make it a bigger meaning
  34. schemas
    cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize and use information

    • guide our attention
    • fill in holes
    • interpret meaning
    • overlook inconsistent information
  35. what is a potential problem of schemas?
    b/c schema allow us to overlook inconsistent info, it means your memory is personally bias such as something w/ a strong emotional component
  36. node
    unit of information; not physical realities

    very similar to a neuron network
  37. How does the node's association networks work?
    item's characteristics are linked to nodes

    the closer the nodes, the stronger the association will be

    activating one node increases the chances that closely associate nodes will also be activated

    by saying red, other pieces of memory would be recalled
  38. How do we form strong memories?
    • retrieval = practice makes perfect
    • benefits of tests
    •    students who study by test taking remember info better than traditional studying
  39. retrieval cue
    anything that helps a person retrieve info stored in LTM

    recall vs. recognition
  40. encoding specificity principle
    any stimulus that is encoded along w/ an experience that later triggers memory for the experience

    • ->context dependent memory
    • -> state dependent memory

    your physiological state affect how you recall the information
  41. mnemonics
    learning aids, strategies, and devices that improve recall through the use of retrieval cues

    ex. ROYG. BIV

    condense big pieces of info to simple term
  42. long term memory (LTM)
    • the relatively permanent storage of information
    •   -composed of several systems
    •   -its more of a network of component that works together
  43. how does the old view of memory differ from current view?
    old view states that memories differed in strength and accessibility, but all memories were generally the same

    current view established that memory is not one entity; it is a process involving interacting systems that share a common function of retaining and using information
  44. what are the 3 types of LTM?
    explicit (declarative)


  45. explicit memory
    • the systems  underlying conscious memory
    •   retrieving info "we know"

       2 types
  46. what are the 2 types of explicit memory?
    episodic- memory for one's personal past experience 

    ex. your 16th bday

    semantic memory- for facts separate from one's personal experience

    ex. george washington was the first president
  47. implicit memory
    the system underlying conscious memory

    •   -cannot put these memories into words
    •   -procedural memory-a type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits
    •     -> very resistant to decay
    • -> part of muscle memory

      ex. riding a bike, tying your shoes
  48. prospective memory
    remembering to do something at some future time

    •   involves both automatic and controlled processes
    •  takes up cognitive resources leaving less space in working memory
  49. forgetting
    the inability to retrieve memory from long term storage

       -not being able to forget is maladaptive (not assisting adaption)
  50. types of forgetting
    • transience
    • absentmindness
    • blocking
    • persistence (opposite of forgetting)
    • amnesia
  51. transience
    forgetting over time
  52. What are the old and current view of transience?
    old view- transience occurs due to decay (does occur occasionally)

    current view- transience occurs due to interference from other info
  53. In transience, what are the 2 types of interference?
    • proactive interference- old info inhibits the ability to remember new info
    •   ex. learning a and b info; the earlier study of a, essentially blocks the study b material

    • retroactive interference- new info inhibits the ability to remember old info
    • b affect info a which makes you do bad on the test

    (influences differently w/ certain ppl.)
  54. blocking
    temporary inability to remember something that is known

    -aka "blanking" or "tip of your tongue"

    -may caused by interference of words that are similar in some way

    -tends to occur more frequently w/ age

    just can't recall it even though you know it
  55. absentmindedness
    the inattentive or shallow encoding of info or events

    •  -major cause is failing to pay attention
    •  -can occur when mind goes on "autopilot"

    • when we are not focus on something
  56. persistence
    the continual reoccurrence of unwanted memories

    • -the opposite of forgetting; you cannot forget
    • -ex. PTSD
  57. amnesia
    a deficit in LTM resulting from disease, brain injury, or psychological trauma in which the individual loses the ability to retrieve vast quantities of info from LTM

      retrograde - lose past memories

    •  anterograde- lose ability to make new memories
    •  ex. H.M.
  58. What are the 3 ways in which distortion of memory occur?
    memory bias

    flashbulb memories

    source misattribution
  59. memory bias
    changing of memories over time so they are consistent w/ current knowledge, beliefs or attitudes

    • ppl often recreate memories to be:
    • -consistent w/ their current beliefs
    • -place themselves in prominent roles
    • -put themselves in the best light
  60. flashbulb memories
    vivid episodic memories for the circumstances in which ppl first learned of a surprising, consequential or emotionally arousing event

    • ex. Neisser & Harsch: challenger explosion
    •  personal salience is associated with accuracy; New Yorkers remember 9/11 with greater accuracy
  61. source misattribution
    occurs when people misremember the time, place, person or circumstances involved w/ a memory

    aka source monitoring errors

    ex. false fame effect; cryptomnesia

    associating what you know before but you actually don't know it

    using an old idea and you don't know that its a old idea, but you give it a new source/meaning
  62. What is the result of incorrect eyewitness?
    • the leading cause of wrongful convictions in U.S.
    • -75% of conviction have been overturned due to DNA evidence
  63. what are the 2 variables that affect eyewitness accuracy?
    • estimator variables - factors related to the witness, perpetrator or event itself
    •  ex. age, race, weapons focus

    system variables- factors that are in the control of the criminal justice system
  64. Are children reliable eyewitnesses?
    the justice's view of child witnesses has changed

    "daycare cases" of 1980's revealed the need for research on child's ability to give reliable testimony
  65. How are children's accuracy in reporting affected?
    question type (open ended question is more accurate)

    timing of interview (longer time span from occurrence can alter the pieces of info)

    exposure to misinformation

    emotional valence of interviewer (threatening interviewer)

    even under ideal circumstances, children tend to report less info than adults
  66. race
    cross race effect/other race effect (ORE)
    the phenomenon of witnesses remembering own race faces w/ greater accuracy than faces from others

    -identification of own race faces is associated w/ more correct identification and less false positives
  67. What are 3 explanations of other race effect?
    • attitudes: less racist = less prone to ORE
    • (not supported by empirical research)

    • physiognomic homogeneity: some races have fewer distinctions in features 
    • (not supported by empirical research)

    • interracial contact: you recognize the races that you are more familiar with
    • (supported by empirical research)
    • children in interracial communities vs. segregated neighborhood - the more you interact, the more correction of stereotype being placed upon that race
  68. weapon focus
    a witness's attention being focused on the weapon rather than the culprit

    (witness will remember less about the culprit when a weapon is present thus less accurate report involving the culprit)
  69. 2 explanations of weapon focus
    • arousal:
    • cue-utilization hypothesis- as emotional arousal increases attentional capacity decreases
    • ->limites empirical support

    • unusalness:
    • we focus on what is not typical in our environment (weapon) and fail to encode other pieces of info around us
  70. system variables
    line up procedures: psychological research has changed the way police departments nationwide conduct line-ups

    justice system measurer