week 11 exam

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alicia0309
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244707
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week 11 exam
Updated:
2013-11-03 13:43:13
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nursing 103
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electrolytes
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  1. causes of hypomagnesium
    • Chronic Alcoholism
    • pancreatitis
    • Burns
    • excessive loss form GI Tract
    • long term drug use
    • Common in hospitalized clients
  2. Magnesium
    1.5-2.5 mEq/L
  3. Magnesium is primarily found _________
    in the skeleton and ICF
  4. Functions of Magnesium
    • ICF metabolism
    • Needed for ATP production and use
    • 1% in the ECF is responsible for neuromuscular and cardiac function
  5. nursing interventions for hypomagnesium
    • Assess clients receiving digitalis drugs for toxicity
    • assess clients ability to swallow
    • admin mag as ordered
    • encourage client to eat whole grains, meat, seafood, and green leafy veggies
  6. good sources of magnesium
    • whole grains
    • meat
    • seafood
    • green leafy vegetables
  7. Nursing interventions for Hypermagnesium
    • monitor VS & LOC
    • monitor patellar reflexes (if absent notify physician)
    • teach clients with renal disease to talk to physician before taking OTC drugs
  8. Clinical Manifestations of Hypochloremia
    At Risk for Alkalosis and may lead to muscle twitching, tremors or tetany
  9. Causes of hypocholremia
    • excessive losses of
    • Gi Tract
    • Kidneys
    • Sweating
  10. excessive replacement of K (potassium) can _____________
    increase chloride levels
  11. where sodium goes _________
    chloride usually follows
  12. Chloride
    95-105mEq/L
  13. Chloride function
    • Involved if regulating Acid-Base Balances
    • Major Anion in ECF
    • Major component in Gastric Juices
  14. Causes of Hyperchloremia
    • Loss of Fluids
    • water deprivation
    • excessive sodium intake
  15. Phosphate
    1.8-2.6mEq/L
  16. Phosphate Functions
    • Major Anion in the ICF, but also found in the ECF in bones, skeletal muscles and nerve tissue
    • essential for functioning of muscles, nerves and RBC
    • Metabolism of protein, fat and carbs
    • Absorbed in the intestine
  17. children have more _____ than adults
    • phosphate
    • newborns have nearly twice as adults
  18. Hyperphosphatemia causes
    • trauma or chemotherapy
    • Renal Failure
    • Excessive phosphate ingestion
    • phosphate containing enemas and laxatives

    Infants-Cows Milk
  19. Nursing Interventions for hypophosphatemia
    Specific to treating the underlying cause
  20. Nursing intervention for hyperphosphatemia
    Specific to treating the underlying cause
  21. Causes of Hypophosphatemia
    • Glucose, Insulin and TPN
    • Alcohol withdraw
    • Acid-Base imbalance
    • Overdose on antacids
  22. What is included in an Electrolyte Assessment
    • Monitor I&O
    • Monitor Lab Values
    • Symptom Assessment r/t electrolyte deficiencies and excesses
  23. electrolytes are responsible for
    • maintaining fluid balance
    • contributes to acid-base balance
    • transmitting neuromuscular reactions
  24. Cations
    positively charged electrolytes

    • Na
    • K
    • Ca
    • Mg2
  25. Anions
    negatively charged electrolytes

    • Cl
    • HCO3
    • PO4
  26. Sodium
    135-145mEq/L
  27. facts about sodium
    Most abundant cation in ECF
  28. Water follows ______
    sodium
  29. Sodium Functions
    Control and regulate water balance
  30. sources of sodium
    • ham
    • bacon
    • table salt
    • processed cheese
  31. Hyponatremia causes
    • loss of sodium
    • Gain of Water
    • inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
  32. S/S hyponatremia
    • increased swelling
    • Postural hypotension
    • n/v, diarrhea
    • tachycardia
    • convulsions
    • coma
    • urine specific gravity of less than 1.010
  33. nursing interventions for hyponatremia
    • encourage foods high in sodium
    • limit water intake if ordered
  34. causes of hypernatremia
    • Loss of Fluids
    • Water Deprivation
    • Excessive Sodium intake
  35. nursing interventions for hypernatremia
    • monitor for behavior changes
    • encourage fluids as ordered
    • restrict sodium intake as ordered
  36. S/S of hypernatremia
    • Extreme thirst
    • Dry and Flushed Skin
    • Agitation
    • Restlessness
    • Convulsions
    • Urine Specific Gravity greater than 0.130
  37. Potassium
    3.5-5.0mEq/L
  38. facts about  Potassium
    • Major cation in ICF
    • Potassium is excreted by the Kidneys, but is not regulated by the Kidneys
  39. Sources of Potassium
    • Bananas
    • fruits and veggies
    • meat and fish
  40. functions of potassium
    • Vital to Neuromuscular and Cardiac Function
    • Contributes to intracellular enzyme reactions
  41. causes of hypokalemia
    • vomiting
    • use of K wasting diuretic
  42. Nursing interventions for hypokalemia
    • monitor HR
    • Monitor pts on Digoxin
    • admin K as ordered
    • teach about K rich foods & how to prevent loss
  43. S/S hypokalemia
    • weakness, fatigue
    • decreased bowel sounds
    • irregular pulse
    • decreased deep tendon reflexes
  44. Hyperkalemia is dangerous it can lead to ______
    Cardiac Arrest
  45. causes of Hyperkalemia
    • decreased renal Function
    • massive cell trauma (Burns, trauma)
  46. Nursing Interventions for hyperkalemia
    • Closely monitor Cardiac Status and EKG
    • admin diuretic and K lowering drugs as ordered
    • Hold K supplements and K sparing diuretics
    • Avoid food rich in K
  47. S/S of Hyperkalemia
    • Dysrhythmias
    • Weakness
    • Cardiac Arrest
  48. Calcium
    4.5-5.5mEq/L
  49. Facts about Calcium
    most of the calcium in the body is in the skeletal system with only  a small amount in the ECF
  50. Functions of calcium
    • responsible for regulating muscle contraction and relaxation
    • neuromuscular function
    • cardiac function
  51. When calcium levels in the ECF fall the ______ and __________ cause the ______________
    • parathyroid hormone
    • calcitriol
    • Ca+ to be released form the bones into the ECF
  52. nursing interventions for hypocalcemia
    • closely monitor respiratory and cardiac status
    • protect confused patient
    • admin Ca+ as ordered
    • teach about osteoporosis
  53. clients at risk for hypocalcemia
    • parathyroid gland removed
    • hypomagnesemia
    • chronic alcholosim
  54. S/S
    Clinical Manifestations of hypocalcemia
    • Osteoporosis & fractures
    • tetany
    • muscle spasms
    • paresthesias
    • convulsions
  55. Hypercalcemia facts
    occurs most often when Ca+ is pulled from bones
  56. causes of hypercalcemia
    • prolonged immobolization
    • hyperparathyroidism
    • malignancy of the bones
  57. nursing interventions for hypercalcemia
    • increase client movement and exercise
    • encourage fluids as permitted-acid-ash fluids
    • avoid high ca+ foods
    • Encourage fiber
    • protect confused pt
    • monitor pathological fractures
  58. Facts about magnesium
    Primarily found in the skeleton and ICF

    1% inn the ECF is responsible for neuromuscular and cardiac function
  59. facts about chloride
    • Major Anion in ECF
    • Major component of gastric juices
    • Relationship btw chloride & sodium (where sodium goes chloride usually follows)
  60. Facts about Phosphate
    • major Anion in ICF, but is found in ECF bone, skeletal muscle and nerve tissue
    • children have higher levels than adults'
    • Newborns have nearly twice as that of an adult
    • Absorbed n the intestines

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