Exam week 11

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Author:
alicia0309
ID:
244714
Filename:
Exam week 11
Updated:
2013-11-04 07:05:47
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nursing 103
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Description:
Fluid and electrolyte balance
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  1. solute
    a substance that dissolves in a fluid
  2. Solutes can be ________ or _______
    • crystalloids
    • colloids
  3. Crystalloids
    dissolve easily
  4. colloids
    take longer to dissolve

    made up of proteins or large molecules
  5. solvent
    the component of a solution that can dissolve the solute
  6. in the body water is the _______ and the ______ are electrolytes, oxygen, co2, glucose, proteins
    • water = solvent
    • solute
  7. what are the 4 processes of movement
    • osmosis
    • diffusion
    • filtration
    • active transport
  8. Osmosis
    movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from less concentrated side to more concentrated side to create balance
  9. an example of a hypertonoc solution is ______
    0.3% sodium chloride
  10. hypertonic solution causes ________
    water to be pulled from the cells into the vascular space
  11. an example of __________ is 0.9% NS
    isotonic solution
  12. Isotonic Solution  causes water to
    expands the body fluid without causes fluid shift from one compartment to another
  13. an example of hypotonic solution is
    45% NS
  14. Hypotonic solution causes
    pushes fluid into surrounding cells out of the vascular compartment
  15. hypertonis solution has a ______ osomotic pressure
    higher
  16. hypotonic solution has a ____ osmotic pressure
    lower
  17. newborn has ___ % of total body weight is water
    80%
  18. Adult Male has ___ % of total body weight is water
    60%
  19. Adult female has ___ % of total body weight is water
    50%
  20. filtration allows ______ and _____ to cross the semi-permeable membrane
    solvents and  solutes
  21. isotonic Solution
    • equal to blood
    • expands fluid without causing fluid shift from one compartment to another
  22. hypertonic
    • higher concentration = higher osmotic pressure than surrounding cells
    • Pulls fluid from cells and increases the fluid in the vascular compartment
  23. hypotonic
    • less concentrated= lower osmotic pressure than cells
    • Pushes fluid into the surroundimg cells and out od the vascular compartment
  24. phosphate function
    • essential for muscles, nerves and RBC
    • metabolism of protein, fat and carbohydrates
  25. nursing intervention for high oe low phosphate
    specific to underlying cause
  26. phosphate normal
    1.8-2.6
  27. chloride function
    • regulate acid-base
    • major component in gastric juices
  28. low chloride
    • muscle twitching
    • tremors
    • tetany
  29. high chloride
    • acidosis risk
    • lethargy
    • weakness
    • risk dysrhythmias or coma
  30. nursing intervention for high magnesium
    • monitor LOC, VS
    • patellar reflex absent notify pcp
  31. nursing intervention low mag
    • seizure precautions
    • encourage green leafy veg
  32. mag high
    • n/v
    • hypotension
    • bradycardic
    • flushing
    • vasodilation
    • depressed tendon reflexes
  33. mag low
    • tachycardia
    • hypertension
    • increased heart rate
    • confusion
    • vertigo
    • seizure
  34. magnesium function
    • ICF Metabolism
    • needed for ATP production
    • neuromuscular and cardiac function
  35. calcium function
    • regulates muscle contraction anf relaxation
    • neuromuscular and cardiac function
  36. 3 electrolytes that maintain neuromuscular and cardiac function
    • Calcium
    • Potassium
    • Magnesium
  37. ECF
    • scc
    • sodium
    • chloride
    • calcium
  38. ICF
    • pmp
    • potassium
    • magnesium
    • phosphate
  39. equation to get drops per min
    • total volume x drop factor (gtt factor)
    • -------------------------------------------
    •   total time in min

    =drops per min
  40. normal pH
    7.35-7.45

    high B low A
  41. normal PCO2
    35-45

    high A low B
  42. normal HCO3
    22-26

    high b low a
  43. pH normal
    full compensation
  44. 3 abnormal
    partial comp
  45. norm bicarb or PCO2
    no compensation
  46. low calcium
    • numbness tingling extremities and around mouth
    • confusion
    • muscle spasms
    • convulsions
  47. pot low
    • dysrhythmias
    • decreased bowel sounds
    • muscle weakness
  48. pot high
    • confusion
    • decreased HR
    • cardiac arrest
  49. ANP
    • responds to hypervolemia causes sodium loss and inhibits thirst mechanism
    • flushes out sodium and water goes with it
  50. renin produces
    angiotension I which cause vasoconstriction
  51. ADH
    • antidiuretic hormone
    • causes temp drop in urine output
  52. FVD
    isotonic
  53. FVE
    isotonic
  54. overhydration
    osmolar
  55. dehydration
    osmolar

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