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- 1820s(forerunner to women in policing)
- quaker women who were concerned about women in prison(because off sexual abuse)
- believed women should guard women
- women should be present in police stations
- 1845 NYC hired 1st police matron (male officers resisted)
- hired in chicago(1893)
- patrolman for 30yrs
- investigated child abuse, runaways & sexual abuse
- portland (1905)
- hired as a safety worker
- LA (1910)
- appointed power of arresteducated w/ degree similar to social work
women on patrol
- (1972) Indianapolis
- 1st city to put women on patrol
- (1973) LA placed a car of women on patrol others included D.C. & NYC
- 1 stage of law enforcement for women
- everything seems to be going well
- 2 stage of law enforcement for women
- doubt because
- male domination, male culture
- attempt to lose femininity in order to fit in
- ie appear more masculine
- 3rd stage of law enforcement for women
- transition into police culture
Duel of manhood
occurs when there a male officer confronting a male citizen
- occurs when a female officer is dealing with a male citizen or even male officer
- the EEOC defines it as
- 1) unwanted advances 2) can be verbal or physical 3) of a sexual nature 4) submission to or rejection of impacts employment
- well known police brutality case
- where police beat king brutually after a police chase because he was speeding
- resulted in huge riots (LA RIOTS)
delay in calls for service
- minority complaint about police
- police taking a long time to respond to calls(if at all)
- complaint about police treatment towards minority
- usually racialized
- over policing
- focus on minorities as a suspects
- questioning and frisking
terry v ohio
- (1968) NYPD stop, question, and frisk (Brownsville Brooklyn)
- issue came when substituting race for probable cause
driving while black/ brown
racial profiling of black/minority drivers
- use traffic violations just to get a closer look at drivers
Whren v U.S. (1996)
- case where an officer was investigated drug crimes
- whren was stopped for "not signaling" and the officer saw 2 bags of cocaine
- council wanted to dismmiss drug evidence because officer used traffic violation to pull him over and get closer look
- supreme court ruled that pretextual stops are LEGAL
- extreme case of police brutality
- 1997, NYPD police pushed plunger into rectum and punctured his intestine
- ambulance was called but police demanded that they wait
- technique used in policing
- LAPD had some issues btwn 1975-1982 15 deaths occured
- 12 were black men
- NYPD were looking for a rape suspect
- Diallo was an immigrant and wanted to pull out his wallet for id purposes
- police mistook it for a gun and fell
- officers let off 41 shots
- DEADLY FORCE
Fleeing Felon rule
- when a violent suspect is running shooting the suspect is considered "seizure"
- not illegal
Tenessee v Garner (1974)
- young 15 yr old runs out house that police thought was a breaking and entering case
- police shot and killed him
- since he was non-violent it was a violation of 4th ammen.
Police Community Relations Program
- problem soling within community by talking community and creating trust
- creates a 2 way flow of info
- ie neighborhood watch, mcgriff the crime dog, DARE
- "looking good" and selling the department
- one way flow of info
- ie. holding chairty bball game
- get info from community
- public can share feeling with the police
- police philosophy/approachblends research and practice
- problem oriented policing
- break it down into smaller issues
- solving problem is not always about arrest
- article that basically:
- get involved at first sign of trouble because it is a signal of disorder
Wilson and Kelling
(1982) published broken windows in Alantic monthly
Newport News, Va
- example of zero tolerence policing
- (1984) problem w/ burglary in 1 apt complex
- sent 12 officer task forec to "survey residents
issues in community policing
- no one standard definition
- can police be comm. advocates?
- Organizers? Can all officers do this
- removing officers from traditional patrol($$)
- accountability:who is held "liable"
- Middle class bias
- community failing/struggling
ways police discover crime
- patrol 10%
- citizen calls 90%
- greatest coverage-appear to always be around
- should deter crime
kansas City preventive patrol experiment (1974)
- 15 beats divided into 3 groups
- traditional patrol(control)
- proactive patrol(stayed constantly visible)
- reactive patrol (only responed when called)
- saw no diff in crime rate between poroactive and reactive
- no diff in reports, no diff in response time, no diff in effectiveness(opinion)
- proactive did however increase fear of crime
single officer patrol
- vs 2 officer patrol
- more cost effective/greater coverage
- fewer resisting arrest situations
- fewer assaults against officer
- fewer injuries
- fewer complaints
hot spot patrol
- policing by location
- Minneapolis hot spot experiment showed that patroling by location for 3 hours a day reduced crime 20%
- greatest crime reduction is being seen for no more than 10 mins.
Undercover Police work
- lengthy history in local law enforcement
- NYPD street crime unit transit police
- less supervision
- need good policy to guide undercover officers
Suicide by cops
an act motivated in or whole or in part by the offender's desire to commit suicide that results in justifiable homicide by a law enforcement
Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act of 2004
exempts qualified police officers from state laws prohibiting the carrying of concealed weapons and allows retired officers having at least 15 years of service to carry fire arm.
the first attempt at criminal identification that was thought to be reliable and accurate, was based on the theory that human beings differ from each other in the exact measurements of there bodies and that sum of these measurements yields a characteristics formula for each individual.
The West case
Will west arrived at the federal penitentiary and they said that his photograph was already on file and his bertillon measurement. But that had them confused with another person who was already in prison. This incident furthered the use of fingerprints in America.
CODIS - Combined DNA Index System
CODIS contains DNA profiles obtained from subjects convicted of homicide, sexual assault, and other serious felonies.
defined as conduct that would cause reasonable person on at least two separate occasions to feel fear remains pervasive problem in our society.
Jurisdictions plagued by significant number of unsolved murders or cold cases.
four stage problem-solving process
POP- Problem-oriented policing
is a strategy that puts the COP philosophy into practice because it advocates that police examine the underlying causes of recurring incidents of crimes and disorder.
Problem analysis triangle
- helps officers visualize the problem and understand the relationship between the three elements of the triangle.
COP - Community -Oriented policing
The police must be engaged in the fight against crime and disorder.
CPTED- Crime prevention through environmental design
The proper design and effective use of the environment that can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidence of crime, and an improvement in the quality of life.
Street Crime Unit
Ethics: very difficult to infitrate Billy Queen
- Women 87 percent
- men 15 percent
- Race reporting, calling- minority women
- Victimization younger women 20-34
- As education goes up victimization goes down same with income
A preliminary investigation is an inquiry conducted by law enforcement representatives to gather more information about an allegation. The purpose of the inquiry is twofold: it is designed to determine whether or not a crime was committed and to identify a suspect or confirm a suspect's identity.
The follow up after the preliminary investigation. To see if there is new evidence
Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment
Must have license and be a tax payer to have some drugs. This creates a black market for drugs mainly opium
Heavy in the black community.
marijuana tax act- this is federal law. prohibits the use of the drug. Drug was said the turn person into something that they could not control.
- 400 K in U.S
- 3 million deaths world wide
60-100,000 per year in the U.S.
Illicit Drug Deaths
- These are all the illegal drugs combined.
- 20,000 per year
Drugs and violence
- Systemic violence (illegal system in place)- This is violence that comes from the drug market.The reason it is violence:
- This refers to the Columbia drug trafficking.
Black peso Market
converting US dollars to paso using the Columbia trafficking system. Making a lot of money US dollars are sold for less to get peso.