appointed power of arresteducated w/ degree similar to social work
women on patrol
1st city to put women on patrol
(1973) LA placed a car of women on patrol others included D.C. & NYC
1 stage of law enforcement for women
everything seems to be going well
2 stage of law enforcement for women
male domination, male culture
attempt to lose femininity in order to fit in
ie appear more masculine
3rd stage of law enforcement for women
transition into police culture
Duel of manhood
occurs when there a male officer confronting a male citizen
occurs when a female officer is dealing with a male citizen or even male officer
the EEOC defines it as
1) unwanted advances 2) can be verbal or physical 3) of a sexual nature 4) submission to or rejection of impacts employment
well known police brutality case
where police beat king brutually after a police chase because he was speeding
resulted in huge riots (LA RIOTS)
police field tactics
delay in calls for service
minority complaint about police
police taking a long time to respond to calls(if at all)
complaint about police treatment towards minority
focus on minorities as a suspects
questioning and frisking
terry v ohio
(1968) NYPD stop, question, and frisk (Brownsville Brooklyn)
issue came when substituting race for probable cause
driving while black/ brown
racial profiling of black/minority drivers
use traffic violations just to get a closer look at drivers
Whren v U.S. (1996)
case where an officer was investigated drug crimes
whren was stopped for "not signaling" and the officer saw 2 bags of cocaine
council wanted to dismmiss drug evidence because officer used traffic violation to pull him over and get closer look
supreme court ruled that pretextual stops are LEGAL
extreme case of police brutality
1997, NYPD police pushed plunger into rectum and punctured his intestine
ambulance was called but police demanded that they wait
technique used in policing
LAPD had some issues btwn 1975-1982 15 deaths occured
12 were black men
NYPD were looking for a rape suspect
Diallo was an immigrant and wanted to pull out his wallet for id purposes
police mistook it for a gun and fell
officers let off 41 shots
Fleeing Felon rule
when a violent suspect is running shooting the suspect is considered "seizure"
Tenessee v Garner (1974)
young 15 yr old runs out house that police thought was a breaking and entering case
police shot and killed him
since he was non-violent it was a violation of 4th ammen.
Police Community Relations Program
problem soling within community by talking community and creating trust
creates a 2 way flow of info
ie neighborhood watch, mcgriff the crime dog, DARE
"looking good" and selling the department
one way flow of info
ie. holding chairty bball game
get info from community
public can share feeling with the police
police philosophy/approachblends research and practice
problem oriented policing
break it down into smaller issues
solving problem is not always about arrest
article that basically:
get involved at first sign of trouble because it is a signal of disorder
Wilson and Kelling
(1982) published broken windows in Alantic monthly
Newport News, Va
example of zero tolerence policing
(1984) problem w/ burglary in 1 apt complex
sent 12 officer task forec to "survey residents
issues in community policing
no one standard definition
can police be comm. advocates?
Organizers? Can all officers do this
removing officers from traditional patrol($$)
accountability:who is held "liable"
Middle class bias
ways police discover crime
citizen calls 90%
greatest coverage-appear to always be around
should deter crime
kansas City preventive patrol experiment (1974)
15 beats divided into 3 groups
proactive patrol(stayed constantly visible)
reactive patrol (only responed when called)
saw no diff in crime rate between poroactive and reactive
no diff in reports, no diff in response time, no diff in effectiveness(opinion)
proactive did however increase fear of crime
single officer patrol
vs 2 officer patrol
more cost effective/greater coverage
fewer resisting arrest situations
fewer assaults against officer
hot spot patrol
policing by location
Minneapolis hot spot experiment showed that patroling by location for 3 hours a day reduced crime 20%
greatest crime reduction is being seen for no more than 10 mins.
Undercover Police work
lengthy history in local law enforcement
NYPD street crime unit transit police
need good policy to guide undercover officers
Suicide by cops
an act motivated in or whole or in part by the offender's desire to commit suicide that results in justifiable homicide by a law enforcement
Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act of 2004
exempts qualified police officers from state laws prohibiting the carrying of concealed weapons and allows retired officers having at least 15 years of service to carry fire arm.
the first attempt at criminal identification that was thought to be reliable and accurate, was based on the theory that human beings differ from each other in the exact measurements of there bodies and that sum of these measurements yields a characteristics formula for each individual.
The West case
Will west arrived at the federal penitentiary and they said that his photograph was already on file and his bertillon measurement. But that had them confused with another person who was already in prison. This incident furthered the use of fingerprints in America.
CODIS - Combined DNA Index System
CODIS contains DNA profiles obtained from subjects convicted of homicide, sexual assault, and other serious felonies.
defined as conduct that would cause reasonable person on at least two separate occasions to feel fear remains pervasive problem in our society.
Jurisdictions plagued by significant number of unsolved murders or cold cases.
four stage problem-solving process
POP- Problem-oriented policing
is a strategy that puts the COP philosophy into practice because it advocates that police examine the underlying causes of recurring incidents of crimes and disorder.
Problem analysis triangle
helps officers visualize the problem and understand the relationship between the three elements of the triangle.
COP - Community -Oriented policing
The police must be engaged in the fight against crime and disorder.
CPTED- Crime prevention through environmental design
The proper design and effective use of the environment that can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidence of crime, and an improvement in the quality of life.
Street Crime Unit
Ethics: very difficult to infitrate Billy Queen
Women 87 percent
men 15 percent
Race reporting, calling- minority women
Victimization younger women 20-34
As education goes up victimization goes down same with income
A preliminary investigation is an inquiry conducted by law enforcement representatives to gather more information about an allegation. The purpose of the inquiry is twofold: it is designed to determine whether or not a crime was committed and to identify a suspect or confirm a suspect's identity.
The follow up after the preliminary investigation. To see if there is new evidence
Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment
Must have license and be a tax payer to have some drugs. This creates a black market for drugs mainly opium
Heavy in the black community.
marijuana tax act- this is federal law. prohibits the use of the drug. Drug was said the turn person into something that they could not control.
400 K in U.S
3 million deaths world wide
60-100,000 per year in the U.S.
Illicit Drug Deaths
These are all the illegal drugs combined.
20,000 per year
Drugs and violence
Systemic violence (illegal system in place)- This is violence that comes from the drug market.The reason it is violence:
This refers to the Columbia drug trafficking.
Black peso Market
converting US dollars to paso using the Columbia trafficking system. Making a lot of money US dollars are sold for less to get peso.