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Definition of a Group
A group is two or more people who interact, share an identity and have common goals.
Differences between primary and secondary groups
Primary groups: intense emotional ties, intimacy, and identification with membership in the group.
Secondary groups: large, impersonal groups with minimal emotional and intimate ties.
Groups we compare ourselves to.
Unique features of dyads and triads
Dyad: a group of two people that have intense but unstable emotional ties.
Triad: a group of three people that have less intense and more stable relationships.
What happens when groups get bigger?
"As group size increases, the intensity of relationships within the group decreases, while overall group stability increases."
Large groups tend to develop formal structures and rules.
Within large groups smaller more intimate groups often form.
The ability of groups to strategically and consciously exclude outsider or those deemed "undesirable" from participating in the group or enjoying the group's resources.
Had subjects answer about sizes of lines to see effect of group conformity. Had one group with each person calling out each answer one at a time. Other group filled with secret accomplices except 1 person to see if one person would answer wrong like the group did. 1/3 of the gave wrong answer like group.
people were allowed to hurt other niggers and 2/3 were obedient to authority despite thinking they were harming others.
A process by which the members of a group ignore ways of thinking and plans of action that go against the group consensus.
The social knowledge and connection that enable people to accomplish their goals and extend their influence
Organizations, Formal organizations, bureaucracies:
Organization: A group with an identifiable membership that engages in concerted collective actions to achieve a common purpose.
Formal organization: An organization that is rationally designed to achieve its objectives, often by means of explicit rules, regulations and procedures.
Bureaucracy: A type of formal organization based on written procedural rules, arranged into a clear hierarchy of authority, and staffed by full-time paid officials.
Ideal type of bureaucracy:
- Rules and regulations govern operations
- Division of labor into specialized offices
- Hierarchical authority
- Impersonality in record keeping
- Some people full-time administrators, hiring based on qualifications
Iron Cage Bureacracy:
Bureaucracy can be an iron cage, trapping people in rules and regulations, stifling creativity, thwarting autonomy, and denying humanity.
Problems with bureaucracy:
Inefficiency, trained incapacity, and goal displacement.
IGO AND NGO
IGO; International governmental organization: an international organization established by treaties between governments for purposes of commerce, security, promotion of social welfare and human rights, and environmental protection.
Ingo: intern. nongovernmental organization: orginzation established by agreements between the individuals or private organizations making up its membership and existing to fulfill an explicit mission.
Any behavior, action, practice, or condition, including those who violate cultural norms or societal laws, that results in disapproval, hostility, or sanction if it becomes known.
Found suicide (a deviant act) rates varied with the strength of individual ties to groups (social solidarity)
In merton's reformulations of durkheim's functionalist theory, a form of anomie that occurs when a gap exist between society's culturally defined goals and the means society makes available to achieve those goals.
Argues that societal pressures inhibit the ability of people to fulfill their needs, causing them to experience stress, or strain, and turn to crime to satisfy those needs.
Opportunity theory and control theory:
Opportunity theory: argues that people differ not only in their motivation to engage in deviant arcts, but also in their opporunity to do so.
Control theory: explains taht the cause of deviance lies in the arena of social control and, specifically, the life experiences and relationships people form.
Primary and secondary deviance:
Primary: a term developed by edwin lemert; the first step in the labeling of deviance, it occurs at the moment an activity is labeled deviant.
Secondary: The second step in the labeling of deviance, it occurs when a person labeled deviant accepts the label as part of his or her identity and, as a result, begins to act in conformity with the label.
Differential association theory:
Deviant and criminal behavior results from exposure attitudes favorable toa cting in ways that are deviant or criminal.
Functions of deviance
- Clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms
- promotes social unity
- sometimes necessary to bring social change
social stratification and social inequality
social inequality: a high degree of disparity in income, wealth, power, prestige, and other resources.
Social stratification: the systematic ranking of different groups of people in a hierarchy of inequality.
Caste society: a social system in which social stauts is given for life. Caste societies are closed to social mobility.
Class society: a social system in which social level is open to movement so that changing class status is possible.
Class: a person's economic status in society, usually associated with income, wealth and occupation and sometimes assocaited with political voice.
Ascribed vs achieved status
achieved status: an individual's social position is linked to his or her acquisition of socially valued credentials or skills.
ascribed status: an individuals social position is linked to characteristics that are socially significant but cannot generally be altered (such as race or gender)
life chances and social mobility
life chances: the opportunities and obstacles one will encounter in education, social life, work and other areas critical to social mobility.
social mobility: the upward or downward status movement of individuals or groups over time.
income: the amount of money a person or household earns in a given period of time, usually a year.
wealth: the value of everything a person owns, minus the value of everything owed.
occupation: a persons main vocation
Status: the prestige associated with a social position.
Political power: the ability to exercise influence on political institutions.
why we sitll have poverty:
functional for non-poor
percentages for quintiles
top quintile: 50.3 percent
lowest quintile: 3.3 percent
race and ethnicity
Race: a group sharing apparent physical traits deemed by society to be socially significant.