Chemiosmosis / ATP Synthesis
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Electron transport chain - Machinery:
- * Four Enzymes in the mitochondrial inner membrane:
- -NaDH-Bc1 complex-Cytochrome oxidase complex- Succinate dehydrogenase
- *Two electron carriers
- - Ubiquinone and cytochrome C
Electron transport chain
NADH and FADH2 need to be converted to ATP
Where: inner membrane of the mitocondria
- -NADH and FADH2 = oxydized n allow transporters to pump H+ across membrane
- - Generate electrical current ( charge / across the membrane from H+ being pump out of mitochondria)
- - H+ flow through ATP synthase
These high-energy e- re transferred from complexes w low e- affinity (NADH dehydrogenase) to those w higher affinity (cytochrome oxidase complex)
- NADH and FADH2 both donate 2e-
- NADH -> NADH dehydrogenase
- FADH -> bc1 complex
Reduction of complexes allows H+ to be pumped out of matrix to inner membrane space, creating a charge gradient and H+ gradient.
Succinate dehydrogenase (last step of energy harvest II in krebs) reduces ubiquinone using FADH2 as an electron carrier.
F0 is a rotor that is powered by H+. Rotation turns Fi through a stator.
- Fi has a 3alpha n 3beta subunits.
- - sub units bind ADP and Pi- force them together to make ATP ( lose, tight, open conformation)
Fi creates ATP as it turns.
- - 3.33 ATP per revolution or 10H+
- Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor in the cytochrome oxydase
- - produces water (oxygen oxydize and water reduce)
- Methanogens (archaea)
- - reduce CO2 to methane
- - Habitat: 1/3 of human's intestines, landfills and swamps.
- Sulfate-resducing bacteria (SRB)
- - reduce sulfate to hydrogen sulfide
- - sour gas
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