Chemiosmosis and ATP synthesis
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Electron transport chain Machinery:
- Four enzymes in the mitochondrial inner membrane:
- - NADH dehydrogenase
- - Bc1 complex
- - Cytochome oxidase complex
- - Succinate dehydrogenase
- Two electron carriers:
- - Ubiquinone
- -Cytochrome C
Electron Transport Chain
- -NADH n FADH2 need to b converted to ATP
- - happens in the inner membrane of mitochondria
- - NADH and FADH2 bcome oxydized, allowing transporters to pump H+ across membrane.
- - Generate electrical current (charge different across the membrane from H+ being pump out of mitochondria) - H+ flow through ATP synthase.
- NADH n FADH2 both donate 2e-
- - NADH to Bc 1 complex
- - FADH2 to NADH dehydrogenase
These high-energy e-
re transfer from complexes w low e-
affinity. (NADH dehydrogenase) to those w higher affinity (cytochrome oxidase complex)
Reduction of complexes allows H+ to b pumped out of matrix to inner membrane space, creating a charge gradient and H+ gradient.
Succinate dehydrogenase (las step of energy harvest II in krebs) reduces ubiquinone using FADH2 as an e- carrier
is a rotor that is powered by H+
. Rotation turns Fi
through a stator.
- - Fi has 3alpha n 3betas sub units.
- > sub units bind ADP and Pi force them together to make ATP (lose, tight, open comformation).
- - Fi creates ATP as it turns
- > 3.33 ATP per revolution or 10H+
- - Oxygen is the terminal e- acceptor
- > produces water
Energy from 1 molecule glucose ATP
- - Glycolysis:
- > 2 ATP
- > 2 NADH x 2.5 = 1 ATP/molecule
- - Krebs:
- > 6 NADH x 2.5 ATP
- > 2 FADH x 1.5 ATP(o.75+0.75 = 1.5)
- > 2 GTP x 1 ATP
- * 30 ATP eukariote
- * 32 ATP prokariote
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