Chapter 1 Hisory and Notes

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Chapter 1 Hisory and Notes
2013-11-03 17:44:13
442 Neuro Disorders

neuro disorders intro
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  1. activity analysis
    breaking down activities into small parts that can be addressed one at a time
  2. give a brief history of neurology and where we have come so far...
    • 1) Ancient Egyptians noticed the brain, & that lesions of the brain impair behavior 
    • 2) Greek physicians realized the relationship of motor and sensory nerves to the brain 
    • 3) da Vinci developed a methodology for studying the brain 
    • 4) Descartes introduced the concept that the brain could be dissected & studied 
    • 5) Willis made the 1st observations that some functions can be localized to some parts of the brain 
    • 6) du Petit showed that nerves control motor 
    • 7) Whytt demonstrated that a small spinal cord section can control a reflex 
    • 8) Broca, Jackson, and others confirmed & extended Willis’ observations on localization of function (19th Century) 
    • 9) Schwann, Purkinje, and Ramon y Cajal- saw images of cells that make up the brain & described their individual characteristics 
    • 10) Sherrington studied sensory and motor physiology in the late 19th and early 20th century 
    • 11) Head, Franz, & Lashley: 1st work underlying neuropsychology and neurologic rehabilitation
  3. What has happened in the latter 2/3rds of the 20th century in terms of neurology?
    improved medical care which increased survival of brain-injured soldiers of WWII and increased survival of civilian patients after brain damage
  4. what does the nervous system control?
  5. what pieces of our bodies are inextricably linked
    • structure and function, anatomy and physiology.
    • can't have one without the other because these things are designed to work a particular way-needs purpose
  6. purposiveness
    hallmark of normal motor behavior
  7. what does the nervous system do?
    it is a large mechanism that generates and controls behavior
  8. levels of analysis
    • any system can be studied and considered at various levels of analysis
    • ex: respiratory physical observation of the individual v. x ray observation v. spirometer
  9. emergent properties
    • structure and function of lower levels cannot explain the structure and function of higher levels
    • ex: neuron communication does not explain speech, however the neuron communication is on the lower level of what ultimately leads to speech
  10. distributed control
    • the nervous system simultaneously coordinates many different activities
    • breathing, speaking, talking, looking etc
  11. redundant representations
    • info is represented in the nervous system in several forms simultaneously
    • take info in several different forms: smell it, taste it, feel it
  12. parallel and serial processing
    • serial-infor travels up and down through the levels of the system
    • parallel- different attributes, processed by different sensory systems, brain receives info simultaneously along parallel pathways
    • ex:when we are eating something and we take in the smell, taste, touch
  13. feedback
    • how the nervous system keeps itself informed
    • ex: pain
  14. integration
    info is processed and reprocessed repeatedly
  15. adaptation
    ability to learn or change behavior
  16. what are the structural principles
    • localization of function
    • topographic organization
    • hemispheric specialization
  17. localization of function
    different parts of the nervous system have different function that are supported by difference in structure
  18. topographic organization
    • info to and from various places maintains some spatial distinvtiveness
    • ie it is clear where things are, there are distinct locations with distinct space
  19. hemispheric specialization
    • each hemisphere has specialized duties
    • left and right brain-each controls specific certain functions
  20. convergence and divergence
    • Converge-info come together
    • diverge-the info is sent back out to the limbs, eyes, where ever the message is meant to go