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  1. Chloroplast
    • - 2 membranes
    •   > inner membrane
    •   > outer membrane 

    - Stroma: is the cytoplasm inside of the chloroplast 

    • - Chlorophyll: absorbs blue light 
    •   > inside of thylakoid
  2. Thylakoid
    def: disk shape, membranous sac in chloroplast 

    • - each disk is called granum 
    •   > pigments around absorb diff. wave lenghts
    • - contains pigments
    •   > some of them arranged into photocentres

    Lumen:  space inside of the granum
  3. Biomas in Photosynthetic organism
    • - comes mostly from atmospheric CO2
    •   >minerals absorbed through plant tissues
  4. Chlorophylls absorb photons
    • Chlorophyll A: plants, cyanobacteria
    •   > convert light energy to chemical energy

    • Chlorophyll B: accessory pigment
    •   > absorbs photons of different energy than A 

    • short wavelength = higher energy photons
    • long wavelength = low energy photons
  5. Photosynthesis
    Photosynthesis can be divided into light-dependent and light-independent reactions. 


    n= represents any #
  6. PSII
    • chlorophyll A
    • absorbs 680 nm
    • H2O is oxidized 
    • generates H+ gradient
  7. PSI
    • chlorophyll A
    • absorbs 700 
    • reduces NADP+
    • ATP is produced
  8. Whats happening in PSII
    • Light strikes chlorophyll in the antenna complex. 
    • Pigment molecules in the antenna complex transmit energy to each other. 
    • Once energy is transmitted to the reaction center P680 chlorophyll A, an e- is raised to a higher valence shell. This e- is donated to quinone (bcomes reduces) 
    • Water oxidized  in the reaction center P680 chlorophyll A.
    • The e- in the quinone is transmitted to b6f.
    • b6f grabs H+ from stroma and pump it into the lumen. The H+ pump in goes to the ATP synthase.
    • The e- in b6f is transmitted to the cyanin where it waits to the photon 700 to give to the next pump an electron that is transmitted further in PSI. Then the e- in b6f enters to the next pump.
  9. What's happening in PSI
    • Photon 700nm (light energy) hits the chlorophyll, an e- is raised to higher valence shell and the e- is donated to the Ferredoxin. 
    • After this donation occur the e- waiting in PSII is then transmitted to the chlorophyll. 
    • The e- in ferredoxin (Fd) then is transmitted to the reaction centre.  
    • In the reaction centre the e- reduce NADP giving NADPH. 
    • ATP synthase is side to the reaction centre.
  10. Light-dependent reactions (PSI)
    Uses e- from PSII to reduce reaction centre absorbs lower-energy photons, uses energy to drive NADPH production in the stroma
  11. Light-dependent reactions (PSII)
    • Uses e- from H2O to reduce reaction centre.
    • Absorbs higher-energy photons, uses energy to create a proton gradient to drive ATP synthesis. 
    • Both PS are interlinked and both require light. 
    • End result: ATP and NADPH produced in the chloroplast stroma, O2 produced from H2O
  12. Photosysthesis Review
    • Glucose is the high energy molecule @end of photosynthesis.
    • e- is energized in the reaction centre.
    • ATP n NADPH made during light reactions
    • Cellular respiration starts w the end product of photosynthesis(NADPH n O2).
Card Set:
2013-11-04 01:37:58

Unit 2
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