Chapter 2 Gross Anatomy

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  1. neurons
    cells specialized for nervous system function
  2. nerves
    collections of their processes
  3. what are the two subdivisions of the nervous system
    • peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    •    -INcludes all parts of the system that are outside of the bony casings of the skull and spinal column
    • central nervous system (CNS)
    •    -INcludes all parts of the system that are within the skull and spinal column
    •    -spinal column encases and protects the brain
    •    *spinal cord and brain are continuous at the foramen magnum (hole at the base of the brain)
  4. anatomical postion
    the reference position
  5. cephalic
    nose end (also synonymous with rostral
  6. caudal
    buttocks end (tail end in lower animals)
  7. dorsal
    back (also posterior)
  8. ventral
    front (also anterior)
  9. what does dorsal and ventral mean in the most cephalic region in the brain
    superior (d) and inferior (v)
  10. medial
    towards the midline
  11. lateral
    away from the midline
  12. sagittal section
    anterior-posterior cut which shows either the right or left side of the brain or spinal cord, usually sliced in the midline
  13. parasagittal section
    sliced lateral to the midline
  14. coronal section
    left-right cut which shows the dorsal or ventral side, made in the cerebral hemispheres or cerebellum-a top view of the hemispheres
  15. what is the spinal cord made of?
    • part of the CNS
    • long column of:
    •    -afferent nerve fibers ascending carrying info to brain
    •    -efferent nerve fibers descending, carrying commands from brain
    •    -interneurons and the cell bodies of these neurons
  16. much infor processing takes place where in regards to the spinal cord
    takes place locally in the spinal cord itself via local circuit neurons
  17. how is info transmitted to the brain
    Info from outside world enter the spinal cord and commands from the CNS exit the spinal cord via spinal nerves
  18. cauda equina
    since the spinal cord doesn't grow the same length as the spinal column, the bundle of spinal nerves that descends in the spinal column before exiting is called the cauda equina
  19. what are the subdivisions of the spinal cord, in descending order
    • cervical vertebrae-first 7
    • thoracic vertebrae-12
    • lumbar-5
    • sacral-5
    • coccygeal-1-3
  20. what do spinal nerves do?
    • carry motor and sensory info to and from the body
    • correspond to vertebral level at which they exit (on the left and right)
    • ed c1 is 1st cervical nerve
  21. what happens if the spinal cord is severed?
    • function to all muscles below the level of the damage is lost
    •    -if an individual has a spinal cord injury at the level of 
    •       -c2, motor innervation to all muscles of respiration will be lost
    •       -t6, motor innervation to the lower intercostals and all the accessory muscles of expiration will be lost
  22. how are spinal nerves numbered?
    • sections of the spinal cord corresponding to the spinal nerves and overlying vertebrae are numbered in the same manner:
    •    -the area of skin innervated by nerves related to a particular segment of the spinal cord is a dermatome
    •    -the spinal cord has enlargements in lower cervical and lumbosacral areas known as the:
    •       -brachial plexus and lumbosacral plexus
    •             -formed by large numbers of nerve cell bodies and processes that collect in those areas
    •             -ex-afferent and efferent nerves in the lumbosacral plexus innervate the lower extremeties
  23. glia
    other cells of the nervous system that support neurons
  24. gray matter
    areas of the cns composed primarily of cell bodies, as collections of neuron cell bodies appear grayish in color
  25. white matter
    areas composes primarily of neuron processes as a result of some specialized glia wrapping themselves around the processes of many neurons (forming insulating fatty layers, appearing whitish in color)
  26. dorsal roots
    afferent nerves that pierce the spinal cord, bundled together
  27. dorsal root ganglia
    cell bodies outside of the spinal cord
  28. ventral roots
    efferent nerves that leave the spinal cord, bundled together (named for the side of the spinal cord they enter or exit)
  29. what are the divisions of the brain
    • brainstem
    •    -medulla oblongata
    •    -pons
    •    -midbrain
    • diencephalon
    • thalamus
    • epithalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • cerebellum
    • cerebrum (collectively the cerebral hemispheres)
    • neuraxis-brainstem and spinal cord
  30. what are the 3 parts of the cerebellum and cerebrum
    • 1. cortex-most superficial part of each structure, primarily gray matter/neuron cell bodies
    • 2. beep cerebellar nuclei-groups of cell bodies deep within the cerebellum
    • 3. basal ganglia-groups of cell bodies deep within the cerebrum
  31. the cerebral cortex is divided into what lobes
    • frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital
    • wrinkled hillocks and grooves on the cortex: gyri and sulci
    • deep sulci known as fissures
  32. divides precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe from the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe
    central sulcus or fissure of rolando
  33. separates the parietal and occipital lobes
    parietooccipital sulcus
  34. hides within the lateral sulcus or ______ ______ and is part of the cortex
    sylvian fissure, insula
  35. divides left and right hemis
    longitudinal fissure
  36. corpus callosum
    massive white structure included in the fiber bundles connecting the two hemispheres
  37. what do the "wrinkles" of the brain allow for?
    allow a lot of surface area to be contained and packed into the small area of the skull
  38. brodmann's numbers
    how some areas of the brain are still identified, based on what some neuroanatomists referred to patches of the cortex with a uniformly similar cell pattern
  39. hippocampus
    portion of the cerebral cortex, hidden w/in the sylvian fissure, and is named for its seahorse shape in cross-section
  40. substantia nigra
    in the midbrain, and is named for its black appearance (lesions have been implicated in parkinsons's disease)
  41. caudate nubleus and ventricles
    large internal spaces
  42. superior and inferior colliculi
    located at the rostral end of the brainstem
  43. striatum
    basal ganglia, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and putamen (as well as the substantia nigra and the subthalamic nucleus)
  44. the brainstem
    • phylogenetically the oldest part of the brain, and is the extension of the spinal cord inside the skull
    • area of transition between the cerebrum and the spinal cord where many important functions are controlled
  45. what happens in the most caudal region of the brainstem
    there is some descending pathways decussate (cross) in the pyramids (roughly triangular in shape)
  46. cranial nerves
    • efferent and afferent fibers related to parts of the brainstem
    • 12 pairs with 2 roles: bring info from the special senses and somatic senses of the face and head into the brain, and they send commands out to the muscles and glands of the head and neck to control behavior
  47. meninges
    tough membranes that protect the soft, gelatinous nervous system from contusion and infection
  48. cerebrospinal fluid
    cushions the nervous system (important part of the circulatory system of the cns)
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Chapter 2 Gross Anatomy
2013-11-04 00:00:35
442 neuro disorders

neuro disoders
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