Fundamental Elements of the Nervous System 1: The Neuron chapter 3

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  1. what is the smallest functional unit in the nervous system
    • neurons
    • they are communication machines
    • they are morphologically and biochemically designed for the purpose of serving the role as info couriers
  2. what do most neurons have
    • one portion designed to receive and process info
    • second portion designed to move info rapidly
    • third portion designed to deliver info to another neuron
  3. soma
    somewhat central, expanded body region
  4. axons and dendrites
    numerous projections or processes that extend out from the soma
  5. axon
    • a neuronal process that extends toward an anatomic or physiologic target
    • can communicate with muscle, dendrite and neuron
    • splits into many terminal branches as it approaches its target structure
  6. axoplasm
    • the cytoplasm of axons
    • type of protective fluid
  7. anterograde axoplasmic trasport
    • mechanism responsible for the movement of protein substances from the soma, pulsatile/ratchet-like movement along the microtubular skeleton of the axon
    • this is efferent away from
  8. retrograde axoplasmic transport
    • mechanism responsible for transporting substances to the soma that enter through the terminal of the axon
    • afferent toward something
  9. dendrite
    additional process that extends from the soma, usually more than one present on a neuron, and each may be highly branched
  10. nissl substance
    • in their proximal portions dendrites have nissl substance in their cytoplasm which is called¬†dendroplasm
    • dendrites also have the ability to produce protein substances
    • collective consisting of rough endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes
    • distributed throughout the neuroplasm of the soma with the exception of the axon hillock
  11. plasmalemma
    • plasma membrane and is semipermeable¬†(filter) that encloses the entire neuron
    • selectively regulates the movement of certain substances and ions into and out of the neuron (central to it's ability to process and move info)
  12. neuroplasm
    • the cytoplasm of the neuron found in the plasmalemma
    • contains the organelles necessary for synthesizing proteins
  13. what do the organelles include
    • nucleus
    • nucleolus
    • golgi apparatus
    • rough endoplasmic reticulum (sheets of membrane)
    • ribosomes
  14. axon hillock
    axon's origin
  15. neurotransmitters
    some of the synthetic products of the organells, chemical messengers released by one neuron to communicate with another neuron
  16. what are the two large families of neuromitters
    • 1. those that form ion channels gated by the neurtransmitter
    • 2. those that are coupled to g-proteins such that neurotransmitter binding initiates a series of chemical reactions in the cell to produce an effect
  17. neurotransmitters:
    one of the 1st neurotransmitters to be identified, and is the major neurotransmitter used in the pns
  18. gaba
    neurotransmitter check pg 56
  19. neurotransmitter:
    additional neurotransmitter with an inhibitory role, distinctly localized in different parts of the brainstem
  20. Neurotransmitters:
    • epinephrine
    • norepinephrine
    • dopamine
    • all serve as neurotransmitters in both the brain and pns
  21. what are epinephrine and norepinephrine known as
    adrenaline and fatigue
  22. excitatory amino acids
    most excitatory transmission in the brain is probably mediated by glutamate, or a related excitatory amino acid
  23. glutamate receptor subtypes
    ampa, kainate, nmda, and metabotropic
  24. neuropeptides
    larger molecules than the fast neurotransmitters and are made up of amino acids strung together with peptide bonds
  25. homeostasis
    • balance
    • as life has certain requirements, we have a narrow range of body temps and blood compositions. the hypothalamus regulates these levels in response to a changing external environment. homeostasis is the name of this regulatory process
  26. blood supply of the nervous system
    • brain receives its blood supply through two main arterial groups:
    • internal carotid arteries
    • basilar artery
  27. circle of wilis
    arterial circle at the base of the brain that connects carotid and vertebrobasilar system, the major anastomotic (the union of parts or branches) point in the brain
  28. csf
    • cerebrospinal fluid
    • circulates around the brain and spinal cord tissues, and is important in protecting and sustaining the cns
  29. the meninges
    • greek for covering
    • with csf protect the cns by suspension and cushioning of the brain and spinal cord with in the skull cavity and vertebral column
  30. 3 membranes of meninges
    dura mater, arachnoid (greek for spider), and pia mater
  31. what can viral or bacterial invasion into the nervous system cause
    bacterial meningitis or hydrocephalus
  32. blood brain barrier
    • acts as a physicla and enzymatic shield to help maintain homeostasis in the cns
    • specialization of the walls of the brain capillaries that limits the movement of bloodborne substances into the extracellular fluid of the brain (inhibit, or block)
  33. endothelial cells
    line the walls of the blood vessels and restrict the movement of: ions, proteins, nutrients in and out of the vessel
  34. what other blood brain barriers are there
    astrocytes, pericytes and basal lamina provide further restrictive defenses
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Fundamental Elements of the Nervous System 1: The Neuron chapter 3
2013-11-04 01:48:34
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