2008 exam revision
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why is distributed practice better than massed (cognitive)
cognitive learners learn best when they have energy and are not tired, if a beginner is fatigued they will execute the skill incorrectly. there is a risk they could strengthen the neural pathway which is incorrect, making the skill difficult to relearn later on.
advantage of massed practice
good for discrete skills, that can be perfected as they have a low fatigue factor and minor changes can be adjusted.
what is 02 deficit
the difference between oxygen required for a given task and the oxygen actually consumed by the body
explain the av02 difference that occurs after a long term training
the muscles are able to extract more oxygen due to increased capillary density, hence more capillaries feed each muscle fibre. myoglobin also increases hence increasing the oxygen capacity of the blood transporting oxygen to the mitochondria
increase oxidative enzymes explanation
increased breakdown of food fuels to speed up, glycogen is preserved for longer periods of exercise without 'hitting the wall'
explain why fartlek training may improve the v02 max of an 800m runner
- fartlek training helps aerobic and lactic.
- the 800m would depend on lactic acid and the athlete will generally exceed OBLA
- fartlek training stresses the lactic system as the periods of high intensity will see the athlete exceed OBLA. the periods of recovery will also bring changes to the cardio-respiratory and muscular system to increase v02 max.
state on reason why v02 max is generally lower in women than men
- women have larger percentage of body fat meaning they have more 'dead weight'.
- females also have a smaller muscle mass, - smaller capacity to produce energy aerobically
explain why the concentration of glycogen in FTMF and STMF change during the race
glycogen concentrations are depleted much quicker in STF because these are the muscle fibres preferred during aerobic work such as a marathon run. at 30km point, glycogen in STF was heavily depleted so glycogen in FTF was used for energy demand.
with reference to the inverted U shape, explain a childs performance may be affected by anxiety
there is an optimal level of arousal for maximum performance. if a child is anxious before a major championship they would generally be over aroused. this would lead to a decrease in performance as they would be less likely to remain focused (selective attention) unable to detect the relevant cues and unable to apple correct technique and tactical knowledge.
three physiolgical changes to anaerobic skeletal muscle
- increase in size of mitochondria
- increase in CP stores
- increase lactic acid tolerance
physiological change explanation (mitochondria)
mitochondria - increased aerobic capacity to reduce alliance on lactic acid system with production of fatiuge.
two acute responses of altitute training
- increase in cardiac output
- increase in blood flow
- increase in tidal volume, ventilation and respiration rate
explain how performance could be improved by one of the chronic adaptions (altitude)
- all of these changes lead to an increase in the supply of oxygen o the working muscle tissues hence aerobic power increases.
- increases the intensity of work that can be achieved before reaching the anaerobic threshold and accumulating fatigue, causing lactic acid
- increase in red blood cells
- increased size and count of mitochondria
how can interval training be used for netball
interval training is used for team sports because it mimics the change of intensity where a player works aerobically and anaerobic systems, they work at their anaerobic threshold in short periods of rest and recovery allowing for some lactic acid removal
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