2011 exam revision
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explain one factor that is nesseccary for mental practice to be effective
for mental practice to be effective, it must be used in conjunction with the actual practice. in addition the athlete must visualise as detailed image as possible, then visualise themselfs peroforming the skill faultlessly and successfully in a competitive enviroment.
suggest one training program for speed
- speed - short interval training
- 20-50 short maximal sprints at maximum intensity with 3 full minute recovery, chronic adaptations
- increase muscular hypertrophy increasing muscular strength and athletes maximum intensity
- increased muscular fuel stores, increase ATP, glycogen, CP and anaerobic enzymes for a faster resynthesis of ATP
explain one psychological strategy that a bowler might use to maintain confidence in their bowling ability
mental rhersal could be used to help the bowler relax and reduce stress levels, improving performance by picturing themselfs maximal bowling.
identify one chronic adapations that would increase v02 max
increase in blood volume - all of these adaptations increase the oxygen carrying capacity in the blood
one physiological reason why a trained athlete can sustain high intensity exercise for longer than a non trained athlete before fatigue
a trained athlete generally has a higher LT, meaning they have a greater capacity to produce energy aerobically if they have a greater aerobic power they are able to work at higher intensity's with less reliance on anaerobic energy sources and its associative byproducts that contribute to fatigue.
causes of fatigue in the following:
a - bench press
b - marathon
c - push ups
- a - muscular fatigue, CP stores depeleted
- b - dehydration, altitude
- c - lactic acid accumulation
explain the possible cause of fatigue of accumulation of lactic acid
high intensity of 60 second exercise that would not allow for the sufficient delivery oxygen to the muscles hence lactic system dominant
one chronic adaptation that would reduce the effect of lactic acid accumulation
- increased lactic acid tolerance so the athlete can exercise with higher levels of lactic
- increased muscular hypertrophy - increase in cross-sectional area of muscle, would increase the muscular strength and athletes maximum intensity
method that would improve lactic acid accumulation
circuit training - uses exercises with a basic preperation of moderate intensity work and repetitions.
explain 2 advantages of interval training
- work can easily be monitored by a coach
- hard to 'cheat'
- easy to see improvements
- easy to apply progressive overload, by the number of variables such as reps, interval, rest to work ratios
explain one change that could be made to interval training to incorperate progressive overload while still in the same energy system (aerobic)
- increasing the intensity up to 80% so the athlete does not train their anaerobic threshold
- increase the distance of each eg. 800m - 1km
- incease the number of repetitions 5 - 7
it is likely there would be an increase in muscular strength, explain how an increase in muscular strength may improve the performance of an 800m runner
- increase in muscular strength (muscle hypertrophy) that would increase
- power - increase stride length
- speed - increase the speed of muscular contractions decreasing overall performance time
in your sport, explain how an elite player who in autonomous stage may revert to an associative stage of learning
- injury - the athlete may have been injured for a period of time and unable to practice or remain autonomous
- change of technique - further improvement may cause the player to go back to re-invent a part of their game to enhance improvement
explain one difference in the type of feedback that a coach would give to an elite and beginner player
- beginner - positive - encouraging and motivating feedback
- argumented - provide feedback for kop to try and establish the beginner with a feel for the movement
- elite - constrictive (try and provide feedback (even negetive) that can further maximise skill and performance
- interval - try to get the player to self evaluate their movement through proprioception
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