2012 exam revision
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explain how visual feedback may contribute to improvement or more successful performance
a player will successful score a goal from the free kick line and will increase their self confidence so they are more than likely to be more successful in their next free kick on goal under similar conditions
ways to control anxiety
visualisation can reduce anxiety can increase self confidence of an athlete as they can mentally visualise a successful performance of the skill
why is distributed practice prefered over massed practice
- less fatigue
- less boredrom
- shorter attention spams
- recieve feedback so changes can be made
- opportunity for mental practice hence allows for improve performance
using one biomechanical prinicple explain the effec of increasin the angle of release beyond 45 degrees would have on the flight of the path
incraesing the angle of release beyond 45 would mean vertical forces applied to the shot would be greater then those being applied horiziontially, hence reducing the horiziontial distance the shot would travel
using one biomechnical principle explain the different weights of the shot would account for the similarity int he records for women and men
newtons first law of motion, the light the mass of the shot, allows for the female to apply as much force to the projectile to throw it almost as far as men
suggest one reason for the training year to be sprint in the phases
- enables the athlete to supply the training principle specificify to her training program allowing them to adapt to their training demands to that specific year/season
- - also allowing the athlete to have an active break, to recover and adapt from the physiological, and psychological stresses of the training year
physiological chronic adaptations to speed
increase in muscular hypertrohy - increaes the speed of fast twitch fibres, the increase in msucule size of fast twitch fibres. this increases the muscle size and strength hence power (strength x speed) so the athlete will increase running speed
acute responses from oxygen production
increased cardiac output, stroke volume, av02 difference, blood flow, blood perssure, oxygen uptake, ventilation, lung diffusion but decreased blood volume
explain the muscle fibre type that would maximise performance of an athlete sprint swimmer
fast twitch muscle fibres will maximise performance of an elite sprinter because fast twitch fibres contract at a greater speed and generate a larger force
using the graph (temperatures) identify the optimal temperature to extend performance before the onset of exhaustion
- optimal temperature is 11 degrees. this is likely due to the other temperatures causing the body to stress as it tries to maintain an equilibrium with the enviroment.
- 4 degrees - the body is trying to keep warm and prevent hypothermia, as there is signigicant energy being used to try and maintain core temperature.
- At 21 – 31 degrees – the body will be trying to keep cool
- and prevent hyperthermia. The body will be losing excess fluids through sweat
- and dehydration and will result in a reduced blood volume, fatigue comes quicker.
Explain the possible
physiological effect that an extended time in cold water could have on a surfer
- A reduction in core temperature would increase muscle shivering
- to keep the body warm. This would increase calorie expenditure and deplete
- muscle glycogen stores quicker, increasing the reliance on anaerobic energy and
- the surfer would fatigue quicker. Blood vessels would undergo vasoconstriction
- to keep blood away from the extremities to maintain core temperature thereby
- reducing the oxygen supply to muscle and increasing the reliance on lactic so
- the surfer would again fatigue quickly.
ways to reduce processing time
- anticipation - predicting the fake
- signal detection - ignoring the weak and irrevelent cues
- selective attention - filter out irrevelant cues
explain why excess body fat is a disadvantage to the performance of a long distance runner
- excess body fat is a disadvantage as it is considered 'dead weight' for endurance runners. it adds to the athletes mass but it does contribute to their power output during the run.
- decreases thermoregulation capacity of the athlete, causing them to increase body temperature and experience dehydration - reduction in blood volume increasing reliance on anaerobic energy systems
explain the possible cause of fatigue that is most likely to have an inpact on the athlete performance in 400m
- lactic acid accumulation
- reduced muscle PH
- increased hydrogen ions
- because lactic is dominant during the race
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