Chemistry - Chapter 9

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Author:
theknurd
ID:
244836
Filename:
Chemistry - Chapter 9
Updated:
2013-11-03 23:17:53
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cracolice chemistry
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Chapter 9 of Introductory Chemistry by Cracolice
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  1. Strong Acids
    • Nitric Acid - HNO3
    • Sulfuric Acid - H2SO4
    • Chloric Acid - HClO3
    • Perchloric Acid - HClO4
    • Hydrochloric Acid - HCl
    • Hydrobromic Acid - HBr
    • Hydroiodic Acid - HI
  2. Activity Series - Group 1
    Replaces H2 in:
    H2O (l)
    H2O (g)
    Acid
    Li, K, Ba, Sr, Ca, Na
  3. Activity Series - Group 2
    Replaces H2 in:
    H2O (g)
    Acid
    Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Cr
  4. Activity Series - Group 3
    Replaces H2 in:
    Acid
    Fe, Ni, Sn, Pb
  5. Activity Series - Group 4
    Replaces H2 in:
    (nothing)
    Sb, Cu, Hg, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au
  6. Soluble Compounds
    • Na+, K+, Cl-, Br-, I-, F-
    • NH4+
    • Nitrate: NO3-
    • Chlorate: ClO3-
    • Perchlorate: ClO4-
    • Sulfate: SO42-
    • Acetate: CH3CO2-
  7. Exceptions for Soluble Compounds
    • Acetates: Al3+, Ag+
    • Halides: Ag+, Hg2+, Pb2+
    • Fluorides: Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Pb2+
    • Sulfates: Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Pb2+
  8. Insoluble Compounds
    • S2-, O2-
    • OH-
    • Carbonate: CO32-
    • Phosphate: PO43-
    • Oxalate: C2O42-
    • Chromate: CrO42-
  9. Exceptions for Insoluble Compounds
    • Alkali Metal Cations
    • Ba(OH)2
  10. Three Ion Combinations That Yield Unexpected Molecular Products
    • 1. Carbonate:
      Expected: 2H+(aq) + CO32-(aq) -> H2CO3(aq)
      Actual: 2H+(aq) + CO32-(aq) -> CO2(g) + H2O(l)
    • 2. Sulfate:
      Expected: 2H+(aq) + SO32-(aq) -> H2SO3(aq)
      Actual: 2H+(aq) + SO32-(aq) -> SO2(g) + H2O(l)
    • 3. Ammonium Hydroxide:
      Expected: NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) -> NH4OH(aq)
      Actual: NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) -> NH3(aq) + H2O(l)

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