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Night CAS is one of the most difficult missions
units can take advantage of their night vision and navigational superiority to ____________ _________ and psychological advantages over the enemy.
CAS Demands a higher level of proficiency and
requires _______ and _______ CAS training.
Dedicated and Realistic
Most Important ADVANTAGE of NIGHT CAS:
- The limitation it imposes on enemy optically directed AAA and optical/IR guided SAMs.
- -It exploits our technological capabilities /superiority
- -enemy ground fire is easier to see / react for aircrews
Night CAS DISADVANTAGES:
- -Radar directed threats remain just as lethal
- -Locating Targets / Friendlies more difficult (PID)
- -Thermal Crossover
- -Takes more time-burns more gas=fewer KIAs
Night CAS planning should be _________.
nearly identical to daylight mission.
Decreased Situational Awareness:
- -Decrease illumination=Decrease SA
- -Geographic references cannot be seen
- -JTAC/Aircrew become more reliant on systems for target location
- -Aircrew spend more time on Admin functions
- -Reduced SA
- -Double checking / reconfirming data
- -Look at your MAP!!
- -Reduced time to acquire targets
- -Simple task take longer to accomplish
Weather / Terrain Considerations:
- -Wind speed / direction effects on ballistic
- -Low cloud ceilings affect weapon employment
- -Comms become degraded
- -Ground Laser Designators
- -IR Pointers (1 watt)
- -IDF or Aircraft delivered illumination
- -Tracer Fire
- -Laser most cover mark!
Laser and IR Pointers are extremely effective and should be used to the maximum extent possible.
Night marks should be EASILY DISTINGUISHABLE between friendly position and target.
Marking Friendlies is the LEAST DESIRABLE, ONLY when no other method is available.
IR Position Markers:
- -Flashing, Programmable, Steady
- -The higher the ambient illumination the harder to acquire
- -Should be verbally confirmed with the Aircrew to avoid Misidentification with other ground lighting.
Rope Technique: JTAC should ask aircrew permission prior
GLINT TAPE: may be seen by the AC-130 MTV
-Do not use more than 1/2 square for individual
-Do not use more than four 1 inch squares per vehicle.
-Do Not LOOK like the TARGET!!!
3 GENERAL CATEGORIES OF NIGHT CAS:
- 1. VISUAL
- 2. SYSTEM AIDED
- 3. NIGHT VISION DEVICE (NVD)
-Target area illumination and target marking provide effective conditions.
- -IDF or Aircraft Delivered Illum:
- Ground Burst
- Parachute Delivered (Do Not USE for LINE 7)
- -Organic Illumination
- Urban lighting
- -Friendly Tracer Fire
- -GFCs Approval
- -What Type? Overt, Covert, Ground Burst or Parachute?
81mm: (600,000 cp / 60 sec)
105mm: (750,000 cp / 70 sec)
155mm: (1,000,000 cp / 120 sec)
LUU-2 Overt Para Flare (2,000,000 cp/4min)
LUU-19 Cover Para Flare (100 watts / 7min)
M257 Overt 2.5in Rocket (1,000,000 cp 2/min)
M278 IR 2.75in Rocket (700 cp/3min)
- -Overcast can highlight the aircraft for enemy defenses
- -Illum flares can increase smoke and haze and further reduce visibility
SYSTEM AIDED EMPLOYMENT:
-More relied on at night and adverse weather
- -A/C SYSTEMS
- FLIR/Multispectral TV sensor
- -Targeting Pods
- Litening II
- -LASER Designation
- A/C Self or Buddy Lase
- Ground Party
System Aided Employment:
!!Aircrews and JTACs should use Redundant methods!!
- -Night Vision Goggles
- -Night Vision Scopes
- IR POINTERS
- -Ground IR Pointers
- -Aircraft IR Pointers
IR Confusion: Are there other IR pointers out there to cause confusion?
- LASER TARGET DESIGNATOR/LASER SPOT TRACKER (LTD/LST)
- FORWARD LOOKING INFRA RED (FLIR)
- NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG)
- INFRA RED (IR)
MANDATORY IR CAS CALLS:
-Anytime IR pointer are employed by Ground Forces, Attacking Air Craft will call:
- "VISUAL" in conjunction with.....
- "TALLY TARGET"..."Contact Sparkle"..or"Contact Mark"
- on EACH and EVERY Pass / attacks prior to receiving clearance Request with Final Instructions.