blood, lymph and immune system

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blood, lymph and immune system
2013-11-04 15:14:21
med terms

chapter 9 breaking down each system
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  1. erythrocytes
    red blood cells, remain in bloodstream
  2. leukocytes
    white blood cells
  3. thrombocytes
  4. plasma
    liquid portion of blood
  5. blood cells are formed in
    bone marrow, sternum, vertebrae, pelvis, and ends of long bones in arms and legs
  6. hematopoiesis
    developed blood cells to their mature form
  7. transports oxygen and CO2
  8. erythropoiesis
    RBCs decrease in size and develop hemoglobin
  9. hemoglobin
    carries oxygen to body tissue and exchanges it for CO2
  10. RBCs live
    about 120 days then rupture releasing hemoglobin and cell fragments
  11. leukocytes
    • protect body from pathogens and foreign substances
    • remove debris from injured tissue
    • aid in healing process
  12. White blood cells migrate through
    endothelial walls of capillaries and venules and enter tissue spaces.
  13. diapedesis
    process how WBC migrate
  14. 3 different types of granulocytes
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
  15. agranulocytes
    arise in bone marrow but mature in lymph tissues
  16. 2 types of agrunulocytes (AKA mononuclear leukocytes)
    • monocytes
    • lymphocytes
  17. platelets (thrombocytes)
    smallest formed elements found in blood.
  18. fibrinogen
    soluble blood protein
  19. serum
    fluid resulting from when fibrinogen and clotting elements are removed from plasma
  20. 4 types of blood
    • A
    • B
    • AB
    • O
  21. 6 items the lymph system consists of
    • lymph (fluid)
    • lymph vessels
    • nodes
    • spleen
    • thymus
    • tonsils
  22. 3 functions of lymph system
    • maintaining fluid balance
    • transporting lipids away from digestive organs
    • filtering and removing unwanted or infectious products in lymph nodes
  23. lymph vessels begin as
    closed ended capillaries in tissue spaces
  24. interstitial (tissue fluid)
    fluid that seeps from blood capillaries and resembles plasma but contains less protein
  25. lymph capillaries
    microscopic vessels
  26. right lymphatic duct
    vessels from the right chest and arm join right lymphatic duct
  27. right subclavian vein
    major vessel in cardiovascular system where the right lymphatic duct drains
  28. thoracic duct
    lymph from all other areas of body enters here
  29. left subclavian vein
    where the rest of the lymph drains after going through thoracic duct
  30. spleen
    • resembles a lymph node
    • acts as filter by removing cellular debris, bacteria, parasites and other infectious agents
    • also destroys old RBCs and serves as respiratory for healthy blood cells
  31. thymus
    • located in upper part of chest
    • partially controls immune system by transforming lympohcytes into T cells to function in immune system
  32. tonsils
    • masses of lymphatic tissue located in pharynx
    • act as filters to protect upper respiratory structures from invasion by pathogens
  33. resistance
    work together to protect against disease
  34. first line barriers
    • keep pathogens from entering the body
    • includes skin and mucous membranes, tears, saliva, and gastric secretions
  35. second line barriers
    • protect body once pathogens have gained entry
    • includes phagocytic cells and inflammation
  36. 2 types of lymphocytes
    • B cells
    • T cells
  37. B cells
    formed and mature in bone marrow then migrate to lymph system
  38. T cells
    • formed in bone marrow but migrate to thymus where they mature before entering lymph system
    • responsible for cellular immunity
  39. humoral immunity
    protects against bacteria and viruses that have not yet entered a cell
  40. B cells produce
    clone of cells called plasma cells
  41. plasma cells produce
    highly specific proteins called antibodies
  42. antibodies travel in
    • plasma
    • tissue fluid
    • lymph
  43. cellular immunity
    protects against viruses and cancer cells
  44. 4 types of T cells
    • cytotoxic
    • helper
    • suppressor
    • memory
  45. cytotoxic T cell
    • destroys invading antigen
    • determines antigens weakness and uses weakness as point of attack
  46. helper T cell
    • essential to proper functioning of humoral and cellular immunity
    • uses cytokines to activate, direct and regulate activity of other components
  47. suppressor T cell
    • monitors the progression of infections
    • when infection resolves, T cell shuts down immune response
  48. memory T cell
    find way to lymph system and remain their long after encounter with antigen, ready for combat if antigen reappears
  49. hematology
    branch of medicine that studies blood cells, blood clotting mechanisms, bone marrow and lymph nodes
  50. allergy and immunology
    branch of medicine involving disorders of the immune system