Brain - Quiz 6

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  1. Parts are: medulla, pons, midbrain
    What are the parts of the brainstem?
  2. Transmission (sends signals)
    Vital reflexes
         - breathing, blood pressure
    Other reflexes
         - swallow, vomit, cough, sneeze, hiccup
    Visual and auditory (in midbrain)
         - superior colliculus: used for EYES and head motion to a stimulus
         - inferior colliculus: used for EARS and head motion to a stimulus
    What are the main functions of the brainstem?
  3. corpora quadrigemina  aka the four colliculi—two inferior, two superior.  (They are respectively named the inferior and superior colliculus).  The corpora quadrigemina are reflex centers involving vision and hearing
    What is the superior colliculus and inferior colliculus collectively called?
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  5. Image Upload
    Brainstem +
  6. It is made up of thalamus, hypothalamus, and pineal.
    It appears at the upper end of the brain stem, situated between the cerebrum and the brain stem.
    What is the parts of the diencephalon? and where is it located?
  7. it is a sensory relay system.
    Signals received from the body.  Signals sent to cerebrum.
    What is the thalamus?
  8. gray matter
    What is the thalamus made of?
  9. regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst
    What is the function of the hypothalamus?
  10. chunks of gray matter
    What is hypothalamus made of?
  11. Surface:
    sulcuses & gyruses (grooves and bumps), fissures are DEEP sulcuses AND 4 lobes (frontal, parietal, occipital, & temporal).
    gray matter (cortex & basal ganglia)
    6 layers arranged in columns
    What is the cerebrum made of? describe surface and structure
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    • 4 lobes of cerebrum
    • Frontal, Partietal, Temporal, Occipital
  13. Longitudinal (splits R & L hemispheres of brain)
    Central (splits frontal and parietal lobes)
    Lateral/Sylvian (splits the top and temporal lobes)
    Transverse splits cerebrum from the brainstem
    What are the 4 major fissures?
  14. precentral (located in frontal lobe, before central fissure)
    postcentral (located in parietal lobe, after central fissure)
    Name two important gyruses?
  15. gray and white.
    Gray matter - cortex (shell around the brain) AND basal ganglia (aka a group of nuclei of varied origin in the brain that acts as a cohesive functional unit)
    Gray matter is arranged in cortex as 6 layers arranged in columns
    White matter- corpus callosum
    What type of matter is the cerebrum made of?
  16. counciousness
    What is function of cerebrum?
  17. balance and posture
    smooth, coordinated skeletal movements
    What is the function of the cerebrum?
  18. cushions, it helps protect the brain.
    it is filtered blood (it is also made from blood).  main difference between CSF and plasma is protein.  Protein is common in plasma but not in the CSF
    What is function of the cerebrospinal fluid?  What is it made of?
  19. blood --> choroid plexus --> lateral ventricles --> foramina of Monro --> 3rd ventricle --> Aqueduct of Sylvius --> 4th ventricle --> subarachnoid space --> arachnoid villi -- dural sinus
    Name order of the CSF Pathway from spinal cord to brain
  20. CSF gets in the subarachnoid space via the 4th ventricle
    CSF gets in the subarachnoid space via the 4th ventricle
  21. *carotid and vertebrals
    *What blood vessels supply blood into the brain?
  22. a rotary of blood vessels in the brain

    Circle of Willis is the joining area of several arteries at the bottom (inferior) side of the brain. At the Circle of Willis, the internal carotid arteries branch into smaller arteries that supply oxygenated blood to over 80% of the cerebrum.
    What is the circle of willis?
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    circle of willis
  24. SUGAR (glucose) and OXYGEN
    Both of these are essential.  
    ALSO needs to be able to REMOVE Carbon Dioxide to function properly
    What does the brain love? (in order to function properly)
  25. are venous channels found between layers of dura mater in the brain.[1] They receive blood from internal and external veins of the brain, receivecerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the subarachnoid space, and ultimately empty into the internal jugular vein.
    What is the dural sinuses?
  26. is a separation of the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid (BECF) in thecentral nervous system (CNS). It occurs along all capillaries and consists of tight junctions around the capillaries that do not exist in normal circulation
    What is the blood brain barrier?
  27. oxygen
    carbon dioxide

    what CAN'T penetrate? --> proteins
    What can penetrate the blood brain barrier?
  28. 2 seconds w/o blood flow = loss of consciousness
    If blood flow stops, how many seconds until one loses consciousness?
  29. blood starts to solidify, hence why we do CPR.

    But at this point brain starts to die.
    what happens after 4-6 mins of loss of blood flow to brain?
  30. 12 pairs
    How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
    found- underneath frontal lobe of cerebrum (nose area)
    function - responsible for sense of smell
    • what is cranial nerve # 1 called?
    • where is it found and what is the main function?
  32. II = Optic Nerve
    found- main line that leaves from eyes (forms optic chiasma when it crosses)
    function- sense of sight
    • what is cranical nerve #2 called? 
    • where is it? function?
  33. III = Oculomotor
    found- connects eye fibers to the midbrain
    function - moves the eye around and helps focus 
    EYE has 6 muscles that move it around.  1-4 are located here.
    • what is cranical nerve #3 called? 
    • where is it? function?
  34. IV = Trochlear
    found- also connects eye fibers to pons/midbrain
    function - also assists in eye movement
    eye muscle 5 (out of the 6) is located here
    what is cranical nerve #4 called? where is it? function?
  35. V = Trigeminal (aka 3 twins)
    found -spread over the face
    function -Sensory nerve of the face, also controls chewing muscles
    • what is cranical nerve #5 called?
    • where is it? function?
  36. VI = Abducens
    found- also connects eye fibers to pons/midbrain
    function- eye movement (has NOTHING to do with actual vision, just movement).  It is the 6th eye muscle (out of 6)
    what is cranical nerve #6 called? where is it? function?
  37. VII = Facial
    found -emerges from the brainstem between the pons and the medulla
    function -controls/moves muscles of facial expression
    what is cranical nerve #7 called? where is it? function?
  38. VIII = Vestibulocochlear (aka auditory nerve)
    found -emerges from the pontomedullary junction and exits the inner skull via the internal acoustic meatus (or internal auditory meatus) in the temporal bone.
    function - hearing and balance
    what is cranial nerve #8 called?  where is it? function?
  39. IX = Glossopharyngeal
    found - nerve to the throat  [exits the brainstem out from the sides of the upper medulla, just rostral (closer to the nose) to the vagus nerve]
    function - Used for swallowing
    what is cranial nerve #9 called?  where is it? function?
  40. X = Vagus
    found - starts in medulla and it extends down below the head, to the neck, chest and abdomen, where it contributes to the innervation of the viscera. 
    function - part of parasympathetic system

    (parasympathetic system is responsible for stimulation of "rest-and-digest" or "feed and breed", part of autonomic n. system, is unconscious)
    what is cranial nerve #10 called?  where is it? function?
  41. XI = Accessory 
    found -in the neck
    function -controls the neck muscles that move your head
    what is cranial nerve #11 called?  where is it? function?
  42. XII = Hypoglossal

    found -"under the tongue"
    function -it moves the tongue, also senses pain.  *IT has NOTHING to do with taste, not connected to tastebuds
    what is cranial nerve #12 called?  where is it? function?
  43. Facial (VI)  --> front half of tongue
    Glossophryngeal (IX) --> back half of tongue
    Vagus (X) --> throat
    WHat nerves have a part of taste?
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Brain - Quiz 6
2013-12-12 22:41:53
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